Psychology Notes, Week 14
Psychology Notes, Week 14 PSY 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Andrea Friedrich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Psychology Notes Week 14 Personality No clear definition Sigmund Freud o Doctor o Practice in Vienna o Specializes in “nervous disorders” o Free association- method of exploring the unconscious in which a person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind o Psychological causes: sleeping, mechanism that controls thoughts, rest o Hypnosis o Unconscious reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, memory Psychoanalysis o Frauds theory o Personality that attributes to o Personality is the result of our efforts to resolve a conflict between impulse and restraint 3 Interacting Systems 1. ID a. Present at birth b. Source of our psychological energy c. Satisfy basic sexual and aggressive energy d. Operates on pleasure principle (all it cares for) e. Demands immediate gratification 2. Superego a. Develops age 4-5 b. Contains traditional values and ideas of society c. Right vs. wrong d. Strives to control ID 3. Ego a. Young childhood b. Cope with environment c. Mediator between demands of ID, Superego, and reality d. Seeks to relieve impulses in realistic way Personality forms during life’s few years Psychosexual stages- childhood stages of development during which ID’s pleasure- seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones 1. Oral a. 0-18 months b. Pleasure center of mouth c. Fixation points- not dealing with satisfaction of conflict 2. Anal a. 18-36 months b. Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination coping for demands of control c. Orderly and precise fixation 3. Phallic a. 3-6 years b. Interest in genitals c. According to Freud, children desires mother, but dad has mother, and afraid dad will find out d. Freud focuses on boys study Freud’s Ideas today 1.) Projection tests- a. personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of ones inner dynamics b. Humanistic Perspective c. Emphasizes goodness we all have, strive to become better people d. Opposite of Freud’s ideas Abraham Maslow Idea of self-actualization or the motivation to fulfill ones potential Studied self-actualization process of productive and healthy people Carl Rogers Idea that people have a fundamental need for self-actualization Growth promoting environment 1. Gunuineness- genuine people are open with own feelings, transparent and self-disclosing 2. Empathy- empathetic people share and mirror others feelings and reflect their meaning 3. Acceptance- accepting people after unconditional positive reward o Unconditional positive regard- an attitude of total acceptance o Self-concept- thoughts and feelings answer question “Who am I”? 2.) Questionnaires- differences between actual self and ideal self a. Interviews and Intimate conversations b. Trait Perspective i. Traits: characteristic pattern of behavior by placing people on several trait dimensions, simultaneously, psychologists can describe countless individual personality variations ii. Personality Inventories- questionnaires that assess several traits at once 5 Personality Dimensions 1. Stability- degree of emotional stability 2. Extraversion- being outgoing, social 3. Openness- willingness to try new things and experiences 4. Agreeableness- basic emotional style 5. Conscientiousness- persons organization and motivation Psychological Disorders Depression- sadness with unknown cause, without reason; making everyday lives difficult Psychological disorders o A harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing and unjustifiable o Many people were left untreated due to thinking these people were possessed Philippe Pinel o Believed disorders were sickness and was willing to cure them th o End 18 century, first treatment facilities Medical perspective: mental illness—diagnosis and cure through therapy Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective Psychological disorders, Biological disorders, Sociocultural factors Anxiety Disorders o Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety; either constant or all at once Generalized Anxiety Disorder o Continuously tense, apprehensive state of autonomic nervous system o Genetic predisposition o Deficiency in neurotransmitters called GABA o Psychological and sociocultural factors o Biological predisposition= maternal twins o GABA and nonrepinephrine o Traumatic events o Sociocultural factors Panic Disorders o Marked by minutes o Long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and acomponying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations o Avoid public situations, making life difficult Specific Phobia o Marked by a persistent irrational fear and avoidance of specific object or situation o Biological o Defense mechanism or learned (classical conditioning) Social Anxiety Disorder o Social phobia o An intense fear of being watched and judged by others, often fears of possibly embarrassing public places Agoraphobia- Avoidance of situations in which one will fear a panic attack Obsessive Compulsive Disorder o OCD o Thinking something has to be done or they become anxious o Overly repetitive o Continuous anxiety o OCPD- obsessive compulsive personality disorder o Unwanted thoughts o 75% are related to checking o Genetic component o Life stress Depressive Disorders- Psychological disorders characterized by extreme and persistent periods of depressive mood Biological factors o Heredity o Neurological o Neurotransmitter o Hormones Psychological factors o Psychodynamic explanations o Learned helplessness o Cognitive explanations Sociocultural factors- Relationship problems create triggers Bipolar Disorder- o person alternates between hopelessness to overexcited state o depression o manic episode: highly optimistic state o person becomes talkative/ little need for sleep/ shows fewer sexual inhibitions o must last at least 1 week psychological disorders characterized by major fluctuations in mood biological factors hereditary Feeding/Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa- intense fear of being fat leads to a severely restricted food intake to nearly starvation Bulimia- characterized by episodes of overeating followed by vomiting, laxative, fasting, or excessive exercise Schizophrenia o psychological disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions o delusions- false beliefs with no basis in reality often of persecution or grandeur Hallucinations- sensory experiences without sensory stimulation (hear, see, feel, smell, and feel things that are not there) Disorganized behavior- talk like child, innapropriatry, shouting Disorganized speech- change subjects, no connection, talk fast Catatonic behavior- move too much or too little Biological factors o Heredity o Brain abnormalities o Neurotransmitter irregulation Psychological factors Sociocultural factors- drugs
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