HDFS 3440 Chapter 6
HDFS 3440 Chapter 6 3440
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Human Development
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Bacevice on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3440 at Ohio State University taught by Katye Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
Human Sexuality Chapter 6 Sexual response in humans are in uenced by many factors 0 Our brain s capacity to create images and fantasies Our emotions Various sensory processes Hormones O O O o The level of intimacy between two people The Brain and Sexual Arousal Cerebral cortex the outer layer of the brain s cerebrum that controls higher mental processes Limbic system a subcortical brain system composed of several interrelated structures that in uence the sexual behavior of humans and other animals Key structures in the limbic system 0 Cingulate gyrus o Amygdala o Hippocampus 0 Parts of the hypothalamus Investigators have begun to use functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI technology to record brain activity during sexual arousal Evidence indicates that electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus in human subjects produces sexual arousal sometimes an orgasm When certain parts of the hypothalamus are surgically destroyed the sexual behavior of both males and females of several species can be dramatically reduced Dopamine A neurotransmitter that facilitates sexual arousal and activity Serotonin A neurotransmitter that inhibits sexual arousal and activity Male ejaculation causes a release of serotonin in both the MPOA and the lateral hypothalamus The Senses and Sexual Arousal Touch 0 Erogenous zones Areas of the body that are particularly responsive to sexual stimulation 0 Primary Erogenous Zones Areas of the body that contain dense concentrations of nerve endings I The genitals I Buttocks I Anus I Perineum I Breasts nipples I Inner thighs I Armpits I Navel I Neck I Ears ear lobes I Mouth 0 Secondary Erogenous Zones Areas of the body that have become erotically sensitive through learning and experience Vision 0 Men are more aroused by visual stimuli than women 0 When self reported women are less likely to report being sexually aroused ltltltcould be cultural or indicate that women have greater difficulty than men identifying signs of sexual arousal in their bodies 0 We learn from experience to view certain odors as erotic and others as offensive 0 Some societies recognize the value of genital smells as a sexual stimulant o Pheromones certain odors produced by the body that relate to the reproductive functions females 0 Two anatomically distinct sites in the human nose may be involved in pheromonal receptivity I Vomeronasal organ I Olfactory epithelium o Estratetranol an estrogen like chemical found in female urine 0 Androdtadienone a derivative of testosterone found in men s sweat Taste 0 Plays a minor role in human sexual arousal Hearing 0 Some people find words intimate or erotic conversation moans and orgasmic cries to be highly arousing Aphrodisiacs and Anaphrodisiacs in Sexual Arousal Aphrodisiacs Do they work 0 Aphrodisiac A substance that allegedly arouses sexual desire and increases the capacity for sexual activity 0 Some believe foods alcohol and certain drugs can be aphrodisiacs but that s not the case 0 Yohimbine crystalline alkaloid derived from the sap of the yohimbe tree has some aphrodisiac qualities for some people Anaphrodisiacs o Anaphrodisiac A substance that inhibits sexual desire and behavior 0 Most drugs are inhibitors The Role of Hormones in Sexual Behavior Steroid Hormones the sex hormone and the hormones of the adrenal cortex Neuropeptide Hormones Chemicals produced in the brain that in uence sexuality and other behavioral functions Oxytocin A neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus that in uences sexual response and interpersonal attraction Sex Hormones in Male Sexual Behavior 0 O O O Testosterone has a strong link to male sexuality Castration surgical removal of the testes Orchidectomy The surgical procedure for removing the testes I Reduces sexual desire Hypogonadism Impaired hormone production in the testes that results in testosterone deficiency Sex Hormones in Female Sexual Behavior 0 O O O Estrogen affecting sexual desire has not been determined Estrogen Therapy has caused increased sexual desire pleasure and orgasmic capacity Other investigators have found that it can decrease libido When women receive testosterone treatments they report increase in sexual libido How Much Testosterone Is Necessary for Normal Sexual Functioning O O O O O Testosterone in the body comes in two forms attached and bound Men 95 bound 5 free Women 9799 bound 13 free Too much testosterone can have adverse effects on both sexes Testosterone production diminishes with age I Women testosterone falls quickly months after menopause I Men after 40 declines 12 each year Testosterone Replacement Therapy 0 O Easier for men than women There are pros and cons Oxytocin in Male and Female Sexual Behavior 0 O O O Secreted during cuddling and physical intimacy touch is the most powerful triggering mechanism Increases sensitivity to touch Significant release at orgasm Autistic children often have reduced levels of oxytocin Sexual Response Kaplan s ThreeStage Model 0 Three stages desire excitement and orgasm Master and Iohnson s FourPhase Model 0 Vasocongestion the engorgement of blood vessels in particular body parts in response to sexual arousal Men are the only ones with a refractory period Mytonia Muscle tension o Excitement Phase Masters and Iohnson s term for the first phase of the sexual response cycle in which engorgement of the sexual organs and increases in muscle tension heart rate and blood pressure occur 0 Sex Flush A pink or red rash that can appear on the chest or breast during sexual arousal o Plateau Phase Masters and Iohnson s term for the second phase of the sexual response cycle in which muscle tension heart rate blood pressure and vasocongestion increase 0 Orgasm A series of muscles occurring at the peak of sexual arousal o The Grafenberg Spot I Fairly large area composed of the front wall of the vagina and the underlying urethra and surrounding glands I Located by systematic palpation of the entire front wall of the vagina I G Spot amplification injecting the g spot with collagen to produce a temporary enhancement of sexual arousal and response 0 Resolution Phase The fourth phase of the sexual response cycle as outlined by Masters and Johnson in which the sexual system returns to their nonexcited state 0 Refractory Period The period of time following orgasm in the male during which he cannot experience another orgasm Aging and the Sexual Response Cycle The Sexual Response Cycle of Older Women 0 Excitement Phase I May take several minutes compared to 1030 seconds previously I Some report decreased sexual desire and sensitivity of the clitoris o Plateau Phase lesser degree than before 0 Orgasm Phase I Older women remain capable of multiple orgasms and may continue to experience them I Need a longer period of stimulation 0 Resolution Phase I Occurs more rapidly in postmenopausal women The Sexual Response of Older Men 0 Excitement Phase I May require several minutes to become stimulated I Erections may be less firm 0 Plateau Phase not as much myotonia greater ejaculatory control 0 Orgasm Phase I May note a decline in intensity 0 Resolution Phase more rapidly in older men Differences Between the Sexes in Sexual Responses Greater Variability in Female Response The Male Refractory Period Multiple Orgasms
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