StudySoup_Geography Notes GEOG 3120
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Jiang on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3120 at George Washington University taught by Joe Dymond in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
Tuesday April 4 News 0 Dutch hostage kidnapped in Mali was freed by French special forces AIShabaab promised to carry out more Kenyan attacks Libyan suicide bomber killed 4 people 0 Egyptian tourism returning Militants blow up Nigerian gas pipe 0 Sierra Leone found an Ebola case in an Ebolaless district for the past 4 months 0 One of the Garissa University terrorist attackers graduated from Nairobi law school and son of government official BRICS Brazil Russia India China and South Africa 0 BRICS are the top economies in their respective regions 0 China and the US are the most important nonAfrican actors 0 Are China39s ties with Africa longstanding or more recent 0 Longstanding since international trade started 0 ChineseNE African exchanges since the 15th century but stopped until the modern era Zheng He exploration Chinese isolationist policies 0 China s interests 1 Access to natural resources China imports 25 of its oil from Africa and even more metal ores cobalt coltan electronic products copper zinc 2 Political support from as many of the 54 African countries as it can get Africa s 25 of UN membership China s own veto power a Countries typically vote along similar lines and their views are more in sync with China than Western agendas b African countries can use strong Chinarelations to help with UN Security Council and UNHSCR votes 3 End AfricaTaiwan diplomatic ties Not as important today as 3 small African countries recognize ROC while 50 countries recognize PRC 4 don t a China has 50 embassies with ambassadors b US has 49 embassies and diplomatic relations with all 54 4 Growing African market for Chinese exports a Pro 1 billion population with growing middle class increased demands Con Currently not a continent with high expendable income b Total ChinaAfrica trade in 2013 was 200 billion c China is Africa s largest trading partner but Africa is only 4 of China s global trade i China passed the US as biggest African trade partner in 2009 because fracking decreased USAfrican trade while ChinaAfrican trade is increasing ii Major percountry disparities in ChinaAfrican trade 15 countries have large trade surpluses with China from oil and mineral exports Most other countries have growing trade de cits 5 Avoid negative development due to increased Chinese presence China is concerned about nationals interests and businesses being targeted in terrorism civil con ict piracy drug trafficking money laundering and international crime 0 Chinese investment is focused on oil extractive industries raw materials construction telecommunications manufacturing and banking 0 Chinese foreign direct investment in Africa 2012 Of cially 22 billion SHINN THINKS 44 BILLION DUE TO TRANSPARENCY ISSUES China s willing but recently apprehensive Libya to take greater investment risk than Western countries China s African aid program focuses on multibillion loan program 0 China s made large low interest loans to some African countries 0 Less requirements than Western political conditions for aid China s only condition is recognition of One China Policy 0 If the loan has concessionary components like World Bank s International Development Association terms then the loan would have an aid component 0 China gives aid to outcast countries Sudan amp Zimbabwe while the US has sanctioned the two countries Chinese focus on African infrastructure projects Except for Portugal Spain and Turkey the West s big construction companies can t compete for China s ultralow nancing terms and lower costs China has excellent statetostate relations amongst the 50 that recognize PRC 0 Chinese foreign ministers premiers and senior party officials prioritize visits Africans take pride in this attention and interaction that the US doesn t have Foreign minister has made Africa his rst foreign trip since 1991 every JanFeb Hu Jintao made 6 trips to multiple countries Xi Jinping went 2 weeks after coming to power Chinese soft power Media education volunteer 0 Media Xinhua news agency has 20 African bureaus largest African news service 40 Confucius Institutes signi cant radio amp TV stations CCTV amp China Radio in Kenya and rebroadcasting rights with a large number of government outlets 0 Education Increased scholarships for Africans to study in China 0 Volunteer 78 year old Chinese quotpeace corpsquot of 300 volunteers who claim to have treated 200 million Africans since 1963 with its 18000 medical personnel in 46 countries Negatives in ChinaAfrica relations 1 Decreased effective relations with African civil society labor unions some NGOs opposition groups because it conducts of cialinpower exchanges that ignore these groups 2 Parts of African society are more comfortable with Western tradition than Chinese traditions 3 African human rights issues aren t a priorityChina doesn t intervene or condemn 4 Largest weapons supplier to Africa which are sold legally to governments but so much is coming in that they re appearing in con ict zones government gives weapons to favored rebel groups a 25 all conventional arms transfers and 25 light arms supplier in subSaharan Africa 5 Africa has more progressive labor and safety practices than China s which sometimes get Chinese businesses in trouble 6 Africa emphasizes environment more than China so environmental degradation is a major concern 7 Cheap Chinese goods outcompete African goods in domestic markets The quality is usually equalbetter but Africans buy the cheapest product Also a problem with counterfeit products Africa s a low security priority for China s 6500 UN peacekeepers Exacerbated by no Chinese military bases in Africa although China has security ties with 50 countnes o Highlevel military exchanges and active role in peacekeeping operations 2000 peacekeepers in all African peacekeeping operations except 1 case 0 Increased Chinese interests l increased Chinese presence 1 million people increased target potential 0 China s been very active in Somalia s antipiracy efforts as China works towards its blue water navy India 0 India s increasing attention on Africa 0 Primary interest Energy and mineral access Advantage over China 1 Geographically Closer 2 Appeals to aspiring democracies 3 Partially common English language 0 India hosts regular summits with African leaders 0 India attaches no conditions to its aid 0 Indian Ocean sea lane security is a critical national security priority for India 0 Signed a number of defense agreements 0 6500 military and police personnel assigned to 5 peacekeeping missions more than China 0 Modi s prioritizes improved security relations in western Indian Ocean Brazil 0 70 million Brazilians have African origin biggest African diaspora 0 Strong BrazilAfrica cultural ties Brazil has increased embassies former Portuguese colonies and President Rousseff has made several trips 0 Brazilian investment of 1020 billion mostly in mining 50 foreign aid goes to Africa especially in agricultural research 0 Brazil wants African countries to help it get a UN veto power permanent Security Council seat 0 Also gives nonconditional aid Russia 0 At the end of the Cold War there was a sharp decrease of interest in Africa 0 African engagement returned during Putin s rst term and visited South Africa in 2006 First subSaharan Africa state visit 0 Small RussiaAfrica trade ChinaAfrica trade is x30 bigger Russia s interested in Africa s energy and mineral Russia has expertise in developing these markets though 0 Russia has nuclear cooperation project with Egypt and South Africa and space cooperation project with South Africa and Angola 0 Russian aid is small but Russia s a major source of arms to Africa South Africa Newest BRICS country Rise of Emerging Powers Article Africa needs to diversify trade and x the problems with exporting valueadded proeducts Basic infrastructure is major hindrance to global competition and with other emerging powers Vietnam Indonesia etc because of better infrastructure Thursday April 9 News Somalia puts bounty on alShabaab Debate over Garissa University Kenya attack was Christianfocused or not People were indiscriminately killed Zimbabwe government trying to encourage investment from South Africa Adedeji Reading Understanding con ict Important to understand why con ict takes place You need to understand it to prevent it 196019905 At least 80 violent African government changes Only a few countries have been spared violent change since independence Botswana However there ve been some positive developments 0 Countries previously stuck in civil strife have now peacefully emerged Rwanda South Africa Kenya Cote d lvoire Angola 30 years of con ict and peaceful past 1520 years Liberia Sierra Leone Mozambique 0 19905 tendency to intervene in the internal affairs of neighboring countries has mostly stopped because of decreased engagement and con ict End of Cold War led to decreased intervention from Russia and the US only France continued intervention mostly in former colonies Causes of con ict 0 Civil war amp strife 0 Interstate dispute amp interference 0 Ethnic overimportance Civil war and strife from Lack of democracy denial of human rights disregard of people s sovereignty lack of accountabilityempowerment and bad governance Relatively few interstate con icts except for Ghana vs Togo Mali vs Burkina Faso border Tanzania vs Uganda over Ugandan President ldi Amin s overthrow Major interstate con icts are Ethiopia vs Eritrea border and Sudan vs South Sudan Darfur OAU policies since 1963 founding has helped reduce interstate con icts by instating static borders and discouraging interference in foreign internal affairs Ethnic importance and identi cation needs to be decreased Us vs Them mentality To call a con ict an 39ethnic war can lead to bad policy choices by suggesting ethnic difference inevitably result from violent con ict and can only be resolved by suppression of differences Competition over scarce resources is the center of many con icts along class lines not much pastoralists vs agriculturalists herder vs farmer and urban vs rural 0 Usually over oil Sudan water diamonds Sierra Leone amp Angola Con ict in African countries lead to O O O 0 Net decrease in real growth per capita GDP democratic political processes human rights Low life expectancy Less than 50 adult literacy rates in half the con ict countries Increase in poverty social exclusion lower income Launching good governance in postcon ict countries is really hard and can only succeed if new leaders understand why the con ict happened in the rst place so as to not repeat it 0 How can African leaders better understand domestic and foreign con ict Include opposition conduct polling use think tanks Paul Williams Peacekeeping operations 0 Williams has researched a lot on UN and AU peacekeeping and general concept of peacekeeping in Africa 0 At the time of the article there were only 6 UN peacekeeping operations in Africa 1 UNAU Darfur mission and 1 AU mission in Somalia 0 Today there are 8 UN peacekeeping operations which account for 70 of the UN peacekeeping budget 0 7 greatest challenges to peacekeeping operations in Africa ONOWLJ39lhULJNI I Long and complicated Wide range of operation models by different orgs Insufficient number of stationed troops NonWestern peacekeeper origins Need for strong policy components police not military Operations are complicated and can involve ambitious mandates Sometimes peacekeepers abuse their power Protracted and complex con ict that usually is international and in support of problematic partiallysupported peace agreements Usually there are many parties involved that have undisciplined militias that support the continuation of con ict Wide range of peacekeeping models handled by different organizations over the years like UN AU Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS EU and USled coalitions 19921994 This makes it difficult to coordinate goals and methods which mean logistical challenges in languagecommunication training equipment and doctrinemission Insuf cient number of troops in most African peacekeeping operations which means it s slow to build up authoritative forces and can create a lengthy period until needed troop numbers are reached Peacekeeper origins are from Africa and South Asia which isn t bad but more Western peacekeepers would bring better training and equipment to these operations Increasing need for strong policy components in operations because the military isn t the most appropriate agreement mediator A strong and powerful police can help but it s harder nd trained police than soldiers Operations have become complicated and involve ambitious mandates that strains training resources and goals as they build institutions for liberal democratic governance human rights monitoring stronger rule of law humanitarian relief and security Peacekeepers don t receive a lot of training on nation building 0 Sometimes peacekeepers abuse their power in terms of corruption sexual abuse etc and can ruin the effectiveness of the peacekeeping mission Understanding the UNAUEU relationship is critical to correctly handle African peacekeeping missions 0 US is biggest provider 25 of UN budget in Africa but has few peacekeeping troops in Africa because of a really bad experience in Somalia 19921994 Black Hawk Down Peacekeeping operations need more realistic mandates more effective training equipment and prevent power abuse NOT IN READING West Africa accounted for almost half of 77 coups d tat 0 Central Africa also had a disproportionately large number of these coups 0 Southern Africa has generally been free of coups 0 Even fewer coups in Eastern Africa and the Horn of Africa Strong correlation between civil war in subSaharan Africa and rise in temperature This means increase temperatures increased likelihood of war based on climate model projections that suggest a 54 increase in armed con ict by 2030 0 Factors include migration famine drought increase crime lower crop yields and lower nonfarm productivity 0 Possible solutions are use crop varieties that better withstand heat and insurance schemes for poor communities Discussion Questions Principle reasons for con ict Religion poverty resource competition ethnicity economic disparity and political marginalization Whose responsibility is it to contain a con ict AU has no money UN has the most money and capability for long sustainable operations but can say yes or no Somalia to what operations they want to engage in What role should the US play in Africa peace operations Increase funding operationallogistical support and intelligence