Long Beach State
Popular in U.S. History 1865-Present
Popular in History
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Doris M on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST173 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Sheridan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see U.S. History 1865-Present in History at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
The Emergence of the Cold War and the 1950s in the U S The cold War What is was, whe n -‐after the 1st half to=f the century where the wars were fought and ppl died by weapons. There becomes rhetoric about war. -‐1945-‐1990: when the cold war takes plac e -‐a series of war that revolve around rhetoric words, threats, rhetorical idea s -‐war didn’t actually break ou t -‐war didn’t actually dominate the 20th centur y Bipolar world, role of the US and the Soviet Unio n -‐bipolar world-‐ economic and political historians way that the world was dominated by 2 pole s -‐2 poles are the US and the Soviet Unio n New role of the US internationally -‐the US is a capitalist country that has ideas about democracy and constitutional law. Multi party system, different political partie s -‐the US lead the western countries and value s -‐ex. West Germany, Canada, France -‐on the opposite side of the pole is the Soviet Union and a new state. Employs communist theories. Operated under a single party socialist. A strong centralized government. The head of the soviet bloc aka eastern bloc -‐US became more active in world politics -‐US pushes back from isolations and has a n activist role trying to push their policies forwar d -‐the beginning of a continuation of power The Marshall Plan, role of Secretary of State George Marshall, proposed June 1947 -‐proposed a couple yrs after the world is ove r -‐a plan that funded 22 billion dollars of aid to other states, specifically European economies -‐states had to agree to conditions to get the money -‐the Soviet union could of really used the money because they lost a large chunk of their stuff -‐didn’t want to accept the money from the U S -‐places on the eastern bloc didn’t want to accept the mone y -‐west German values Significance of the Marshall plan historicall y -‐the plan further divided the US and the Soviet Unio n -‐some states received the money while others didn’t The cold war begins…the "iron curtain" speech at Westminster Colleg e -‐very clear that after the speech by Churchill, that was the moment where the cold war started -‐Churchill not reelected and was half American -‐"an iron curtain has descended upon Europe" -‐what he was saying was that the bipolar world was a reality and it existed. By saying that there were clear differences, it was saying that the Us and the Soviet union had clear differences . -‐the Us understood with the interpretation and there was no going back about the cold wa r -‐Churchill gave the speech and Truman stayed there too communism and capitalist though t -‐differences in how communists and capitalists should govern the lan d -‐capitalists have a larger narrative with little government interference -‐want gov to have limited contro l Soviet union gains territory in the late 1940s, rising of tension with the western worl d -‐soviet union pushed its agenda on the eastern states, they grab territor y -‐grab places like Ukraine, Hungry, Yugoslavia, the Baltic Region, Estonia, Latvi a -‐lead to rising tension with the US The development of atomic politics and the threat of nucle ar tech -‐the US is the first state to finish the first live atomic bomb to be dropped in Japa n -‐US put lost of money into the researc h -‐Soviet union later also created a bom b -‐Hydrogen bomb-‐created by the soviets -‐both nuclear techs of the bombs are available The "nuclear club"… US, USSR, Britain, France, China Indi a -‐nuclear tech in other state s -‐by the time its 1967, there are more than 2 states that have nuclear weapons spanning the globe -‐specter-‐ the use of the weapons cuts negotiations in the cold wa r -‐Pakistan and India go to war in the early 1970s tht later go into a nuclear war -‐tensions play out btwn other states, its not just US and soviets -‐changes the geopolitics of the world not just in a bip olar way. N. Korea and Iran is what present day ppl are worried about. S. Korea is scared of N. Korea … Intelligence agency development of the CIA and the KG B -‐the point in time where the CIA is founde d -‐CIA is created during the cold war in Virginia -‐headquarters -‐ppl trained into espionag e -‐CIA becomes the state sanctio n -‐officially trained spies that implement projects in the US during the cold war -‐KGB the Russian bureau that is the CIA equivalen t -‐Russian spies -‐official state supported espionag e Breaking of the Color Barrie r Jackie Robinson importance of his break into the major league baseball, ending of the negro league -‐baseball was a huge sport during this tim e -‐ppl of af am background couldn’t play basebal l -‐played in the Negro league s -‐negro leagues get addressed when Jackie Robinson comes to light -‐Jackie Robinson -‐made his name in baseball -‐made his name in the negro leagu e -‐the Dodgers gave him a tryout -‐a chance to make it into the major s -‐1950s baseball becomes integrated -‐becomes desegregated because of J. Robinson -‐Dodgers win the world series Truman addresses the NAACP -‐the 1st president that addressed the NAAC P -‐the first time an am pres mentioned race -‐sets up the committee of civil rights Committee on Civil Rights (1946 ) -‐discussing issues about the NAACP publicl y Sets up larger issues of the 1950 s 1950s: change, consumption, and continuit y Larger themes and ideas emerge nce of consumption, similar to the 1920s, move to the West and South -‐consumption: the time of relative Am influenc e -‐am buy houses-‐own a house -‐they bought personal TVs -‐owned cars -‐demographic shift in the 1950 s -‐cont movement to the west and south -‐back drop of popular cultur e -‐moving images -‐Elvis Presley -‐popular shows Emergence of popular culture, and he modern civil rights movemen t -‐am used to live in the city or a rural are a -‐later transformed and emerged Levittown -‐Levittown: a prototype where Am can live -‐moving away from the city that isn’t laid out like a city -‐the earliest suburb had a set of deeds that Af Am couldn’t own houses in Levittow n -‐challenged by the supreme court and later af Am could live ther e -‐rise of cultural differences, and economical differences -‐when you have a car and a house, you don’t have to talk to anyon e -‐changes living patterns and modes of interactio n -‐you don’t have to interact with pp l -‐isolating ideas -‐you have the protection of your famil y -‐effects on interaction -‐suburbs became popular in the south and the west (the sunbelt ) -‐an opening f large population growt h -‐ex. Florida, Texas, LA, -‐population shifted to the west and sout h -‐ppl moves to the sunbelt William J. Levitt, building of Levittown, on long island N Y Larger sets of ideas and development of the suburban lif e Emergence of the sun belt state s The Rise of the Sun Belt Demographic shift, sift away from the Rust Belt and the North Eas t -‐1945-‐55 A population inc -‐entertainment industry, boeing -‐film anf tV industry based in CA Emergence of CA as a force demographically in US histor y Movement of the brooklyn Dodgers and Minneapolis Lakers to LA…becoming the LA dodgers and the Lalakers -‐successful teams that moved from Indianapolis to C A -‐important players in terms of power and league s Birth and development of air conditionin g -‐sunbelt happens because of air conditionin g -‐created the idea of home air conditionin g -‐the reason why ppl began to move to hot area s -‐ppl were able to move to these hot areas because cool air was now availabl e -‐the period where Lvpopular -‐development of disney world -‐shift of ppl -‐cool air in private homes Willis S. Carrier and the use of air conditionin g Use of tech to create comfort and allow for demographic shifts to occu r The culture of Abundance consumerism use of cars TV, washing machines, ref s -‐am had more leasure time -‐leisure act Credit cards use begins, diner's club and am expres s Re-‐emergence of domesticity and an emphasis on home and family life, gender roles of the suburban housewife -‐gender roles become more normalize d -‐mom stays at home with kid s -‐dad works -‐1 vision of american life -‐whats left out of the vision? -‐race and ethnicity -‐economic -‐ppl who didn’t live in the suburb s TV shows: Ozzie and Harriet, Father Knows Best, Leave it to Beaver, I love Luc y -‐set in suburban areas -‐white middle class pp l -‐made AM seem like it was just white am ppl who lived in suburban area s Role of white, suburban culture…to a degree shrouding the isues of race and conflict that are brewing -‐the representation of this US family was shrouding what it was like t o really live in LA -‐the vision left a lot of ppl out FILM: The Eyes on the Priz e -‐brown vs the board of educatio n -‐during the Eisenhower admin, segregation should be banne d -‐"desegregation is illegal based on the bible " -‐south was in favor of desegregation -‐segregted schools down in Dixie -‐battle of civil rights was fought in schoo l -‐the 14th amendment -‐Lucy-‐ protested -‐univ suspended her for a period of time for her safet y -‐lucy mad that the mod was able to change a la w -‐won her case but wa s still expelled -‐after the riots, pres only talked about 2 sides of the goups -‐pres didn’t want to integrate students too fas t -‐Little rock -‐1956 the state and city biuses wer integrated -‐plans were made for schools to be integrate d -‐9 seniors went to one central hs in little rock -‐fears lead to asking help from gov official s -‐gov of arkansas was a man that the black ppl supporte d -‐need the black population's vot e -‐units of the national guard were deployed to keep the peace at cen tral HS -‐state troops were being used to congregate a federal la w -‐9 seniors -‐8 of the 9 seniors attended school -‐expected harassment -‐the 8 children and their adults were turned away by the national guar d -‐the 9th student missed the bus, she went alon e and met a mob -‐Elizabeth Eckheard -‐a crowd of white ppl threatening to kill he r -‐no one she could turn to as a friend except one woman who guided her thru the crowed and took her home safely -‐children went to court -‐the pressure on the pres inc because of the conflicting state and gov law s -‐ppl blamed Eisenhower because he had a lack of actions that lead to extremist s -‐Black press represented by 3 guy s -‐crowd turned on the black reporter s -‐white ppl said they were distractions from the children entering in the bac k -‐federal law dominated over state law -‐troops deployed to help studens enter the school -‐the troops didn’t mean protection but wa r -‐each student had a personal troo p -‐students -‐not all the white students agreed with the riot s -‐black students had to face NAACP interview s -‐psychological effect of the student integratio n
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