ECOL1000 Notes for 4/26-4/28
ECOL1000 Notes for 4/26-4/28 ECOL1000
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Peat on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. J Vaun McArthur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Antibiotic Resistance Movement 4/26/16 Originally thought as solution to infections Reports of antibiotic resistant Strains emerged soon after first use Exemplifies bacterial evolution Became apparent from rate and extent of antibiotic resistance that horizontal gene transfer is important Prevailing Hypothesis Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria change and become resistant to antibiotic to treat infections they cause Superbug Highly virulent Resistant to antibiotics Especially antibiotics of choice and many others Normally found in clinical situations Reports of Elevated Antibiotic Resistance Digestive tract of monkeys with dental fillings Marine harbor sediments Watersheds receiving industrial effluents Drug resistant bacteria in free living sharks Suspected sources of selection for antibiotic resistance Natural microbial warfare Agriculture Bacteria have been living on earth for 3.8 billion years, longer than all other organisms combined Savannah River Set out to test new predictions from concept Tested/screened isolates for resistance phenotypes Resistance Resistance goes up as mercury concentration increases o Hg increases as supplementary resistance increases As metal production goes up so does resistance Central Hypothesis Metal exposure: o Direct selection leads to metal resistant bacteria o Coselection leads to antibiotic resistance bacteria Similarities between metal and antibiotic resistance Both have 1. Exclusion of toxin by cell membrane 2. Modification of toxin 3. extrusion from cell 4. reduction in sensitivity of cellular target 5. intercellular sequestion Have structural similarities Novel Evolutionary Mechanisms Transformation: uptake of free DNA from environment Transduction: viral transfer of DNA from one cell to another Conjugation gene transfer between bacteria through cell to cell contact Highlight on cover of Origin of Species: preservation of favored races in struggle for life NOAA Marine Study Sites 1. Shipyard creek, Charleston former nuclear submarine site polluted with mixture of heavy metals, including mercury has special EPA “superfluid status” because of pollution 2. ACE Basin, Beaufort Reference site, no history of contamination Considered pristine estuary and refuge 3. CCP Site, Brunswick Former industrial complex, fish poison, now disused Extensively mercury polluted site, one of the worst Also has “superfluid status” Study Organisms Vibrio vulnifcus (150 isolates) Eschericha coli (433 isolates) Vibrio parahemollyticus (360 isolates) Vibrio Vulnificus Common in marine/estuarine environments Shows seasonal distribution, abundant when water temp increases above 68 degrees Fahrenheit/ 22 degrees Celsius Causes primary septicemia and infections, most come from raw oysters Rare infections but highest mortality rate, 24 hours after infection Antibiotics help Vibrio existence has increased because of global warming, possible poleward expansion Shifting Climate effect of extreme events In constant climate, extreme hot and cold events are rare Even in most simplified warming scenario, number of warm weather events will increase due to change in probability distribution 2006 European Heat Wave th th June 26 to july 30 Vibrio increased dramaticallu Pacific Northwest Outbreak, 1997 during summer largest reported outbreak of vibrio parahemo. 209 infections higher temps Effect of radiation does radioactive contamination increase antibiotic resistance in biofilm bacteria? Why biofilms humans have extensive contact with surface bodies of water horizontal gene transfer allows resistances to move beyond confines of radiologically active areas Predictions expect to see increase in antibiotic resistance as length and intensity of radiation exposure increase Why are pathogenic bacteria isolated from these environments so resistant? o For vibrios there are no human intermediaries Are these resistances capable of transmission into clinical or community settings? Hypotheses H1: bacteria from fish collected in contaminated streams have higher incidences of antibiotic resistance H2: bacteria taken from association sediments have higher incidences of antibiotic resistance than mid or open water o Accept hypothesis 2 Ash settling in basins of coal fired power plants, increase in metal concentration Probing for Cytoplasmic Membrane Permeability Live versus dead bacterium Flow cytometer measures it Ampicillin (100mg/l) tolerance based on membrane permeability Water in basin has decreased bacteria and water in basin with metal have increased permeability and bacteria Tolerance to metals and antibiotics Plant d4oo has higher discharge and membrane integrity Live bacteria and antibiotic tolerance in niamended microcosms Increase in live bacteria leads to decrease tolerance increase in tolerance with antibiotics Resistance of isolates from microcosms amended with cadium or tetracycline increase in resistance is due to metals, which leads to a decrease resistance to antibiotics we’ve observed relationship between metals and antibiotic resistance in freshwater and marine systems Air? CDC reports vacationers develop respiratory infections after visiting beach Sea foam has more bacteria Does proximity of the beach to higher levels of pollution and heavy metal contamination affect the amount of antibiotic resistance in bacteria? Possible routes to human infection Recreation: swimming, fishing, aerosols Food: sludge application in agriculture Work environment: industry, mining, transportation Medical use Where do we go from here? 4/28/16 Everything is connected We are part of nature o Controlled by same laws o We can affect change but at some cost o We have only been a species but for a short time o We continue to push nature What does the future hold? Warmer climates, inevitable global warming o We can help with our combo of actions o We diminish consequences through adaptation o Conservation of biodiversity o Increasing stabilization Scarcer resources o We can accelerate transition to more efficient use and sustainable alternatives o Ensure ample water with conservation, efficiency and stewardship Ex: wetlands o Conservation and new technology can reduce oil issues Less biodiversity o Likely to lose it and their ecosystem services o We can halt losses and reverse trends More people, bigger footprints o Population will grow o We can limit growth o We can reduce our footprint Sustainable Living Learn leads to understanding Be a skeptic Reduce your “Shoe size”, monitor your own use Invest in ecological programs Act for future o Ex: some weird kids show that has social commentary
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