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ECOL1000 Notes for 4/26-4/28

by: Savannah Peat

ECOL1000 Notes for 4/26-4/28 ECOL1000

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Business > ECOL1000 > ECOL1000 Notes for 4 26 4 28
Savannah Peat

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About this Document

These are the final bundles of notes before the exam on may 10th.
Environmental Issues
Dr. J Vaun McArthur
Class Notes
Ecology, enviornmental, Science
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Peat on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. J Vaun McArthur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
Antibiotic Resistance  Movement 4/26/16 Originally thought as solution to infections Reports of antibiotic resistant Strains emerged soon after first use Exemplifies bacterial evolution Became apparent from rate and extent of antibiotic resistance that horizontal gene  transfer is important  Prevailing Hypothesis   Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria change and become resistant to antibiotic to  treat infections they cause Superbug  Highly virulent  Resistant to antibiotics  Especially antibiotics of choice and many others  Normally found in clinical situations Reports of Elevated Antibiotic Resistance  Digestive tract of monkeys with dental fillings  Marine harbor sediments  Watersheds receiving industrial effluents   Drug resistant bacteria in free living sharks Suspected sources of selection for antibiotic resistance   Natural microbial warfare  Agriculture      Bacteria have been living on earth for 3.8 billion years, longer than all other organisms  combined Savannah River  Set out to test new predictions from concept  Tested/screened isolates for resistance phenotypes Resistance  Resistance goes up as mercury concentration increases  o Hg increases as supplementary resistance increases  As metal production goes up so does resistance Central Hypothesis  Metal exposure: o Direct selection leads to metal resistant bacteria o Co­selection leads to antibiotic resistance bacteria Similarities between metal and antibiotic resistance  Both have  1. Exclusion of toxin by cell membrane 2. Modification of toxin 3. extrusion from cell 4. reduction in sensitivity of cellular target 5. intercellular sequestion  Have structural similarities  Novel Evolutionary Mechanisms  Transformation: uptake of free DNA from environment   Transduction: viral transfer of DNA from one cell to another  Conjugation­ gene transfer between bacteria through cell to cell contact  Highlight on cover of Origin of Species: preservation of favored races in struggle for life  NOAA Marine Study Sites 1. Shipyard creek, Charleston  former nuclear submarine site  polluted with mixture of heavy metals, including mercury  has special EPA “superfluid status” because of pollution 2. ACE Basin, Beaufort  Reference site, no history of contamination  Considered pristine estuary and refuge 3. CCP Site, Brunswick  Former industrial complex, fish poison, now disused  Extensively mercury polluted site, one of the worst  Also has “superfluid status” Study Organisms  Vibrio vulnifcus (150 isolates)  Eschericha coli (433 isolates)  Vibrio parahemollyticus (360 isolates) Vibrio Vulnificus  Common in marine/estuarine environments  Shows seasonal distribution, abundant when water temp increases above 68 degrees Fahrenheit/ 22 degrees Celsius   Causes primary septicemia and infections, most come from raw oysters  Rare infections but highest mortality rate, 24 hours after infection  Antibiotics help  Vibrio existence has increased because of global warming, possible poleward expansion Shifting Climate effect of extreme events  In constant climate, extreme hot and cold events are rare  Even in most simplified warming scenario, number of warm weather events will increase due to change in probability distribution  2006 European Heat Wave th th  June 26  to july 30  Vibrio increased dramaticallu Pacific Northwest Outbreak, 1997  during summer  largest reported outbreak of vibrio parahemo.  209 infections  higher temps Effect of radiation  does radioactive contamination increase antibiotic resistance in biofilm bacteria? Why biofilms  humans have extensive contact with surface bodies of water  horizontal gene transfer allows resistances to move beyond confines of radiologically active areas Predictions  expect to see increase in antibiotic resistance as length and intensity of radiation exposure increase  Why are pathogenic bacteria isolated from these environments so resistant? o For vibrios there are no human intermediaries  Are these resistances capable of transmission into clinical or community settings? Hypotheses  H1: bacteria from fish collected in contaminated streams have higher incidences of antibiotic resistance  H2: bacteria taken from association sediments have higher incidences of antibiotic resistance than mid or open water o Accept hypothesis 2  Ash settling in basins of coal fired power plants, increase in metal concentration Probing for Cytoplasmic Membrane Permeability  Live versus dead bacterium  Flow cytometer measures it  Ampicillin (100mg/l) tolerance based on membrane permeability  Water in basin has decreased bacteria and water in basin with metal have increased permeability and bacteria Tolerance to metals and antibiotics  Plant d­4oo has higher discharge and membrane integrity Live bacteria and antibiotic tolerance in ni­amended microcosms  Increase in live bacteria leads to decrease tolerance   increase in tolerance with antibiotics Resistance of isolates  from microcosms amended with cadium or tetracycline  increase in resistance is due to metals, which leads to a decrease resistance to antibiotics  we’ve observed relationship between metals and antibiotic resistance in freshwater and marine systems Air?  CDC reports vacationers develop respiratory infections after visiting beach  Sea foam has more bacteria  Does proximity of the beach to higher levels of pollution and heavy metal contamination affect the amount of antibiotic resistance in bacteria? Possible routes to human infection  Recreation: swimming, fishing, aerosols  Food: sludge application in agriculture  Work environment: industry, mining, transportation  Medical use Where do we go  from here? 4/28/16  Everything is connected  We are part of nature o Controlled by same laws o We can affect change but at some cost o We have only been a species but for a short time o We continue to push nature  What does the future hold?  Warmer climates, inevitable global warming o We can help with our combo of actions o We diminish consequences through adaptation o Conservation of biodiversity o Increasing stabilization  Scarcer resources o We can accelerate transition to more efficient use and sustainable alternatives o Ensure ample water with conservation, efficiency and stewardship Ex: wetlands o Conservation and new technology can reduce oil issues  Less biodiversity o Likely to lose it and their ecosystem services o We can halt losses and reverse trends  More people, bigger footprints o Population will grow o We can limit growth o We can reduce our footprint Sustainable Living  Learn leads to understanding  Be a skeptic  Reduce your “Shoe size”, monitor your own use  Invest in ecological programs  Act for future o Ex: some weird kids show that has social commentary 


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