Developmental Notes Week 11
Developmental Notes Week 11 PSYC 3120
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Chapter 18- Social and Personality Development in Late Adulthood 4/19/16 Gerontology • Study of old age • Basic personality traits remain stable o Agreeableness o Satisfaction o Intellect o Extroversion o Energy o Acceptance of change Grandparents • Adults spend as much as 1/3 their lifespan as grandparents • Beliefs, values and standards • Grandchildren o Grandmothers vs. grandfathers o Maternal grandparents o Typically bond closer between same sex o Maternal grandmother-granddaughter bond is strongest • Social class/Ethnic factors o Low income families o Children in single parent families o African-American/Asian/Hispanic grandparents o Multiple generations in one house • 2 million American children living apart from their parents o Legal custody, child support o Grandmother Group • Great-grandchildren o Most grandparents do not have a close relationship with their great- grandchildren o Depends on age • Positive aspects of being a grandparent o Valued elder o Immortality through descendants o Re-involvement with personal past o Indulgence • Grandparenting Styles o Involved o Companionate o Remote • Changing role of grandparents o Technology o Peers o Mobile Society o Adult Communities • Adult grandchildren o Provide a wider network of support o Someone to visit you in your advanced age! Normative Crisis Models • Robert Peck- three “crises” to resolve o Ego Differentiation vs. Work-role Preoccupation: related to retirement o Body Transcendence vs. Body Preoccupation: knowing what you can and can’t do anymore o Ego Transcendence vs. Ego Preoccupations: “I don’t have time to do anything” vs. “I have time to make meaning of my life” • Erik Erikson o Theory of Psychosocial Development § Ego Integrity vs. Despair • I met my goals vs. I didn’t and now I’m sad and regret it • Selectivity Theory o Social networks become more selective as we age o Don’t need social interaction in the same way that young people do § Information § Affirmation In-class guests • Louise- 75 o Been married 56 years o From Louisiana originally o Favorite place they lived- Alaska (7 years) o Gardens o Most frustrating- brain still goes full speed but body can’t go as quickly o Qualities for a life-long partner: honesty, integrity o Career selection- you have to truly like doing it • Dan- 77 o Retired military- airforce o Moved 18 times in 21 years o Been married 56 years o Stationed in Alaska twice o Retired three times (1980, 1994, and once more) o Proposed twice- got engaged on Halloween • Clint- 64 o Softball coach- coaching for 40 years o Arizona State, junior college, high school, Auburn o “A happy wife is a happy life” o Moved to Auburn because his son moved here with his kids o Sees his grandkids every day and have sleepovers every weekend o Live 8 houses down o Qualities for a life-long partner: they fulfill you, they make you better § “Married my best friend” o Career selection- been a sports person all his life so he just knew • Jimmy- 59 o Teacher, coach and administrator for 36 years o Fort Benning, GA o Coached baseball, football, basketball o “Grandchildren by proxy” through former athletes o Stay active; don’t think you can’t do stuff just because you get older o Qualities for a life-long partner: encouraging, accepting, supportive o Career selection- came to Auburn to play football, was going to be a doctor but then he hurt his shoulder and became sports education Chapter 19- Death and Dying 4/21/16 Do we deny death? • Average person sees over 13,000 deaths on television and the movies by age 21 • Typically death occurs in hospitals • It is rare now for someone to have seen anyone die • Cultural differences and grieving Developmental Understanding of Death • Permanence • Universality • Nonfunctionality • 2 to 6 year olds o View death as temporary and reversible o May APPEAR unaffected by the death of a loved one o May take responsibility for the individual’s death o Develop a concept of death = age 5 • 6 to 9 year olds o May take responsibility for death of someone else o Understand that death is final = age 9 • 9 to 12 year olds o May take responsibility for death of someone else o Can probably handle most of the information one would give to an adult o Can understand customs involved with death • 12 to 19 year olds o Understand the permanence, universality and nonfunctionality of death but this is limited to the realm of possibility o Personal fable induces a sense of invulnerability o Romanticize death as an enduring abstract state o Risky behavior causes most adolescent deaths o Adolescents with chronic illness feel angry and cheated • Common Reactions to Grief in Childhood o Negative behavior o Increased activity o Dependency o Regression • Death in Young Adulthood o Desire to keep intimate relationships o Future planning o Outraged at illness o Orientation = number of years lived • Death in Middle Age o Aware that they are going to die someday o Consider death in realistic manner o Fears of death are greater during this time than any other o Orientation = number of years remaining • Death in Late Adulthood o Know with certainty that time is coming to an end o Disengagement theory o Face a large amount of death in their environment o Less anxious about dying o More realistic about death o Suicide rate increases during this stage Definitions of Death • Functional death: can be revived through CPR, shocking the individual, etc. • Brain death: cannot be revived Elisabeth Kubler-Ross: Stages of Dying • Denial o Resist the idea that they are dying o Order more tests o “There must be some mistake” o Defense mechanism o Helps individual come to terms with the news of illness • Anger o Direct anger at others o “Why me?” o Angry at God, family members and health professionals • Bargaining o Try to negotiate way out of death o Will dedicate lives to good § “I will dedicate myself to charity” o Ask to live until milestone event § “Just let me spend Christmas with the family” • Depression o Reactive depression: depressed about loss of function o Prepatory depression: depressed about things coming in the future (missing a grandchild’s birth, not seeing their business grow, etc.) • Acceptance o Fully aware that death is approaching o No positive or negative feelings o “At peace” with death • Evaluating Kubler-Ross’s Stages o Stages only apply to those who know that they are dying and have time to process death o The stages are not universal o The stages do not occur in the same sequence for everyone o Bereavement: knowledge that you’ve lost someone o Grief: the actual emotional reaction to losing someone Typical Responses to Grief • Shock and denial o Shut down emotionally (feeling numb) o Your mind’s way of protecting the body o Yearning and searching • Protest Stage o Realization of the loss o Occurs approximately one week after loss • Despair o Realization of the finality of the death o Most susceptible to illness • Acceptance • Accommodation – the final stage of grief • No limit to these aspects of grief • Death can be an expensive affair How to Help Someone Grieving • Social support, reassurance, reminders of religious beliefs are not important to everyone • Find out if it is OK to talk about good memories/experiences • Do practical things to help the person • Don’t minimize the loss • Don’t forget about them!
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