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ANT 215 Week 15

by: Brandon Czowski

ANT 215 Week 15 ANT 215

Brandon Czowski

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About this Document

There notes cover the presentations from the groups in the class that will be covered on the final.
Origins of Civilization
Jeff Chivis
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Origins of Civilization

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
Group Presentation Overview • Old Kingdom Egypt 2575-2150 BC o Government tied to religion, justified by relation to gods § Taxes taken, redistributing goods § Land given to Nomarchs that took central power away o Pyramids with goods were raided o Tools were re-shaped rather than reconstructed; craftsmen buried with their tools o Priests would be elites able to use hieroglyphs o Used mummification process, invented potter’s wheel o Decline § Decreased rainfall § Long rule under Pepy II fragmented power of lineage • Civil war § Rulers died and small cities ruled under own government • Harappan Civilization o NW India in fertile valley o Disease and violence § Skeletal remains had leprosy and TB o Invasion: left area rapidly, moving to outer India o Climate change: monsoons less frequent, flooding complicated agr o Did NOT rebound • Classical Maya o Created mayan calendar and long count o Ruled by Ahjah o City states o Agriculture: maize, beans, squash o Mini-collapse, gradual decline § Drought, warfare, overpopulation, low resources o Evidence: § Ruined cities of invasion, environment from climate change, parasitic disease o Drought: deforestation, series of droughts, less water in soil o War: large-scale destruction (internal conflict), invader remains (external conflict); Tikal and Copan sites of conflict o Overpopulation: leaving from conflict to other areas that could not support the quick increase in population o Rebounded over long period, Aztec empire • Late Bronze Age: Mycenaean Civilization o Began in 1650 BC o Art, architecture, political organization o Large palaces in most centers o People of the sea: Dorian people, depictions and carbon dating show evidence for invasion, could have been other people (low class civil war) o Depended on trade and relied on war to end competitions; as other settlements ended their economy was affected and declined o Climate change, drought, and earth quakes; low precipitation causing socioeconomic decline • Easter Island o In south pacific, most isolated; focused on using palms o Built Moai, causing ecocide (depleting resources) and conflict for supplies leading to civil war o Natural drought, rats were introduced from invading countries o Disease from Spanish invaders o Evidence § Rat bones, deforestation loses resources, Moai were destructed in civil war o Rats likely, climate change, slaves were taken from island, lack of water and poor health, compounded by disease o Birdman cult, reunited people every year o Gradual decline from deforestation and rats • Hittite Empire o Modern day Turkey, was a religious and ceremonial center o Royal family was on control but competition within them led to some being exiled o Polytheistic, trade as large contributor o Documents with writing of kings, the fall, and wartime o Evidence for burned and broken pottery o Famine and drought—relied on other civilizations for resources o Lack of crops cause malnutrition § Evidence for extreme drought b/w 1250-100 BC § Warfare, invasions, and internal conflict also contributes o Became absorbed in Assyrian empire and remains were burned/destroyed • Great Zimbabwe th o Collapsed in 15/16 century o Ended when power shifted towards Mutapa state o Overpopulation, over-grazing of cattle, famine o Decrease in gold trade networks § They were founded on gold mines, occasional relocation o Drought influenced agriculture,


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