GWSS 257 2-19 Notes
GWSS 257 2-19 Notes GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aaron Jin on Saturday February 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender at University of Washington taught by Ann Voorhies in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Gender in Women and Gender studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/21/15
GWSSPSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender Topic Emotion amp Aggression 19 February 2015 Professor Notes for Reference PP 9 Emotion Articles quotWhy Won t We Talk About Violence and Masculinity in America and quotSuicide by mass murder Masculinity aggrieved entitlement and rampage school shootings Lecture Notes and Questions Missing the first couple of questions from lecture Emotion Gender similarities and differences emotional doublestandard O 0 Women expected to emote more but only powerless emotions fear crying etc Men limited to emotion of anger dominance and aggression Similarities in experience of emotions O O Emotion is a response to a stimulus in the environment survival instinct About same reported frequency and observed expression I Women will report more frequent expression of fear and anxiety I Men report more positive emotions than women Differences in expression of emotion O 0 Display rules social norms that tell us when and how we can and should show emotion I Reflect cultural stereotypes about femininity and masculinity In the US females allowed to be happy outwardly and cry outwardly but not allowed to express anger outwardly can be angry if cry Males allowed to express anger but otherwise be stoic and unfeminine convey sadness and fear through anger and hostility A lot of gender differences manifest in display rules and not experienced emotion social rules of what we can do and what feelings are associated with masculinity and femininity observer bias Display rules vary by culture 0 O Collectivist cultures value wellbeing of group over individual tend to express more guilt which is an acceptable emotion to visibly express Pride and contentment more highly valued in collectivist African cultures less so and guilt more acceptable with collectivist Asian cultures Personal failures result in shameloss of honor how others perceive you Individualist cultures opposite pride more acceptable Personal failures result in embarrassment selfconsciousness Anger is not universally masculine this is mostly in Western cultures I Some cultures anger is a sign of weakness and lack of control esp with indigenous cultures in America and Asia Stereotypes maternal instinct implies that maternal emotions and behaviors are innate and not culturally influenced and treated as such 0 Origin women intellectually inferior to men and more emotionally responsive to babies I Started from Victorian era and women are able to gestate and lactate 0 Current gender norm women have inborn desire and skill to have babies and nurture whereas men are inadequate the buffoon o Are women innater prepared to nurture young Harlow s studies with primates demonstrate maternal abilities are associated with emotional stability and social interaction during youth I Assumption that infants prefer caregivers that provide sustenance over touch but experiments support the opposite touchgtsustenance I Primates raised in isolation or only with mother had stunted nurturing ability Normal primates were those raised with group of monkeys Biological imperative protect and care for offspring there is a biological drive to reproduce but also psychological desire to do other activities beside reproduce o No evidence that care can only come from a mother their biological mother 0 Studies on attachment infants newborn age 2 form healthy bonds with any consistent caregiver Humans form multiple bonds and don t discriminate consistency trumps biology Gender bias produces evidence in support of maternal instinct and paternal failure to nurture but no evidence that these are innate behavioral patterns 0 Gender stereotypes perpetuate tendency to perceive only mothers in caregiving roles and take special notice to paternal failures 0 Parenting is a hugely demanding job and nobody is fully equipped off the bat to know how to parent However do not see the mothers in the learning stage and fathers who do well at parenting Also don t see aunts uncles siblings etc because not the societal expectation o Humans are fairly malleable and having strong attachments teaches how to do same later Stereotypes Aggression behavioral displays associated with anger and hostility are associated with masculinity 0 Male gender role express aggression suppress all other emotions I Affects perceptions about male aggression and female absence of aggression o Evolutionary psychology aggression advantageous to males contingent on assumption that every does this I Overlooks necessity of aggression in females and face that unchecked aggression is counterproductive to group fitness I Female are aggressive if need to protect offspring bird sitting on eggs Q Both Chemaly and Kalish and Kimmel describe mass shooting as a symptiom of expectations of power and privilege not undiagnosed mental illness cultural sadism misogyny o Developmentally aggression and impulsivity decreases with age due to prefrontal cortex develops and temporary increase at puberty more impulsivity in males I Prefrontal cortex controls emotion and stops them from necessarily being expressed I Prefrontal cortex takes a very long time to develop and always learning adapting 0 Parenting style influences aggression in children what parents model and teach 0 Gender influences type of aggression displayed I Boys tend to be direct and use physical actionswords girls tend to use indirect aggression such as exclusion and social manipulation 0 Adult men and women use more indirect aggression I Equalizes expression of aggression between genders I Men and women differ in display and purpose of aggression I Female expression usually limited to private expression supposed to be nice Aggression and violent crime 0 Stereotypes perpetuate behaviors which perpetuate stereotypes o Perpetrators men are most common perpetrators of violent and sexual crimes I If people marginalized to certain stereotypes more likely to live up to that I Women perpetuate some crime usually in response to victimization o Victims most common victims of violent crime overall are young black men I Most common victims of sexual crime overall are I Transgender people are at high risk for violent and sexual victimization
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