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Biology 162 Week 5 Lecture Notes

by: Jenn Guzman

Biology 162 Week 5 Lecture Notes Biology 162

Jenn Guzman
Cal Poly
GPA 3.3

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These notes are from week 5 of lecture with Dr. Taylor and Dr. Ritter, covering Plant Nutrition, Animal Sensory Information, and Animal Movement.
Intro to Organismal Form and Function
Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter
Class Notes
Bio, 162, Biology, Dr.Taylor, Dr.Ritter, animal, movement, sensory, system, plant, nutrition
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenn Guzman on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 162 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organismal Form and Function in Biological Sciences at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 04/21/16
Friday, April 29, 2016 Photosynthesis, Plant Nutrition, and Animal Sensory Information Lectures Biology 162 Week 5 Lecture Notes I. PHOTOSYNTHESIS (Dr. Ritter, Monday April 25th) A. Rubisco: Rubilose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylate/oxygenase is the most abundant enzyme on the planet, making up 20-50% of all leaf protein and binds to both carbon dioxide and oxygen, catalyzing carbon fixation. 1. “Carbon fixation” refers to converting inorganic carbon to an organic carbon form (CO2 —> C6H12O6) B. Photorespiration: when stomata are closed, rubisco still binds to O2 and CO2; binding to oxygen is maladaptive for plants as it makes toxic byproducts the plant must then expel energy to break down. As a result, CO2 fixation decreases as rubisco binds to O2 rather than CO2, reducing the efficient of photosynthesis as some energy is wasted. There is also a net loss of carbon as it is transformed back into CO2 released into the atmosphere as well as gaseous NH4, also causing it to release some of its nitrogen. 1. This process is generally promoted in hot, dry environments when stomata are often closed during the day, leading to a lower CO2:O2 ratio within leaves of the plant. 2. The atmosphere was different when photorespiration evolved within plants. It was once a positive adaptation as there was a lower partial O2 pressure in the atmosphere (less O2) causing less occurrence of photorespiration, therefore have a lesser negative impact on the plant. 1 Friday, April 29, 2016 C. Evolution of Plants 1. “If rubisco is so inefficient, why hasn't something better evolved?” —> PEP Carboxylase in C4, CAM plants helps to side step and limit photorespiration. C3 Plants C4 Plants CAM Plants Calvin Cycle used? yes yes yes Primary CO2 acceptor RuBP PEP Carboxylase CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco First Product of CO2 3PG (3C molecule) Fixation Oxaloacetate (4C molecule) Affinity of carboxylase moderate high high for CO2 Photosynthetic cells of mesophyll mesophyll and bundle mesophyll with large the leaf sheath vacuoles Photorespiration Extensive minimal minimal II. PLANT NUTRITION A. Root functions: anchorage of the plant body into the soil, absorption of nutrients/ water/ions from the soil into the plant body, conduction of water, storage of photosynthetic products, hormone production 1. A root cap provides protection for the apical meristem within the roods, has no nodes, and has epidermal outgrowths known as root hairs that increase the surface area of the roots for water absorption from the soil 2. Water can take a few paths for movement to the xylem after being absorbed by the root hairs: 2 Friday, April 29, 2016 a) Apoplastic route: a nonliving pathway for water through free spaces and cell walls of the epidermis and cortex (1) Casparian strip impregnante the cell wall with wax, blocking the apoplectic route at the endodermis; water takes a detour to an alternative route b) Symplastic route: a living pathway for water through cell to cell transport by the plasmodesmata between the cytoplasm lined with the plasma membrane that transverse cell walls c) Transmembrane route: water channels throughout the plant cells B. Essential Nutrients in Plants 1. Hydroponics are used to evaluate importance of an absent nutrient in solution revealed essential elements, macronutrients, and micronutrients in plant growth and nutrition Form Type of Element Available to Functions % Average Dry Deficiency Nuutrent Plants Weight Symptoms electron acceptor in cellular roots affected, Oxygen O2, H2O respiration; 45 cells suffocate, major root rot and componenet of wilting organic compounds substrate for photosynthesis; major slow growth Macronutrients Carbon CO2 component of 45 (starvation) obtained from water or the air organic compound 3 Friday, April 29, 2016 Form Type of Element Available to Functions % Average Dry Deficiency Nutrient Weight Symptoms Plants major component of organic compounds, slow growth electrical due to cell Hydrogen H2O balance and 6 death establishment (desiccation) of electrochemical gradients component of proteins, nucleic acids, Nitrogen NO3-, NH4+ ATP, 1.5 failure to thrive chlorophyll, hormones and enzymes Macronutrients obtained from osmotic the soil adjustment in cells and chlorosis, Potassium K+ synthesis of 1 shortened organic molecules; nodes cofactor for some enzymes needed for water-splitting step of wilting, Chlorine Cl- photosynthesis, 0.01 chlorosis, water balance, necrosis Micronutrients electrical balance obtained from the soil chlorophyll synthesis, chlorosis component of Iron Fe3-, Fe2- cytochrome 0.01 between veins and ferredoxin, of young leaves enzyme cofactor 2. Ions enter roots along electrochemical gradients created by proton pumps (primary active transport) a) Potassium moves into root hair cell via 4 Friday, April 29, 2016 facilitated diffusion, Nitrate ions are imported into root hair cell via secondary active transport b) Mycorrhizal fungi and plants are mutualists: fungi provides fixed, usable forms of nitrogen for the plant and in return get fixed carbon in the form of carbohydrates C. Nutritional Adaptations 1. 99% of plants perform photosynthesis, 95% pf plants take up nutrients from the soil, 80% of plants have root associations with mycorrhizal fungi, 7% of plants get nitrogen in association with rhizobia III.Animal Sensory Information (Dr. Taylor, Wednesday April 27th) A. Mechanoreceptors: sense changes in pressured that causes conformational changes in receptors; in terms of hearing, could waves are turned into pressure waves in ear fluid. B. Anatomy of the Ear (basic): outer ear (pinna and ear canal) concentrates sound waves, while the middle ear and inner ear consisting of ear ossicles and the cochlea conducts and transduced into sensory information for the brain in a series of steps: 1. Sound waves hit the tympanic membrane to 5 Friday, April 29, 2016 make specific waves 2. Ear ossicles transport waves to the cochlea 3. The cochlea has mechanoreceptors situated in fluid concentrated with K+ that open in response to the pressure waves a) Sound waves —> pressure waves in fluid —> mechanoreception —> neural information transmitted to the brain C. Hear adaptations: bat use echolocation, a vocal adaptation of high frequencies to detect prey with their ears 1. Thermoregulation: rabbits maintain a high surface area of their ears in order to help thermoregulate their bodies D. Photoreception: photons are responsible for triggering photoreception in the brain 1. Insects have compounded eyes with ommatidia, having many little eyes with their own lenses and axons to the brain, having a greater visual acuity. 2. Humans have simple eyes with one lens; many photoreceptors transmit visual information along the optic nerve to the brain a) Rods detect dim light while cones detect colors: in both types of cells, each tiny membrane layer in the cell has an integral membrane protein. Rhodopsin is a compound consisting of opsin protein and retinal pigment acts as the photon receptor portion of vision b) Due to the different opsin present, we can distinguish between colors 6 Friday, April 29, 2016 E. Chemoreception (molecules in the environment triggering sensation) 1. Taste: chemicals released by saliva bind to tongue receptors called taste cells, hundreds of which are located within taste buds across the tongue; enters pores and bind to taste cells specific to 5 main tastes; each taste cell is associated with a neuron
 a) Salt: Na+ b) Sour: low pH in food d) Meaty: umami c) Sweet: glucose e) Bitter: high pOH 
 2. Smell: nasal cavity separated from brain by bone with small openings; olfactory receptors imbedded in music prod sensory information to olfactory bulbs, fire action potential to the brain IV. MUSCLE MOVEMENT A. Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle 1. Muscle fibers are really long and skinny cells; each fiber contains many sub cellular myofibrils; each myofibril has many stacked sarcomere that are shortened by increased overlapping during muscle contraction a) Sarcoplasm reticulum houses calcium ions when relaxed, action potential opens channels into cell’s cytoplasm, causing change in sarcomes (muscle contraction) 
 7 Friday, April 29, 2016 B. There are three types of muscle tissues C.Endoskeleton vs. Exoskeleton vs. Hydrostatic Skeleton 8


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