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by: Jenn Guzman

Respiratory_and_Circulatory_Intro.pdf Biology 162

Jenn Guzman
Cal Poly
GPA 3.3
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About this Document

These notes cover organismal lecture introducing the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems.
Intro to Organismal Form and Function
Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter
Class Notes
Biology, Bio162, Dr. Ritter, Dr. Taylor, circulatory, Respiratory, Systems




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenn Guzman on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 162 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organismal Form and Function in Biological Sciences at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 04/21/16
Thursday, April 21, 2016 Introduction to Respiratory, Circulatory System Week 4 Lecture for Dr. Taylor, Dr. Ritter - Gas Exchange between an animal’s environment and its mitochondria occurs in four steps: • Ventilation: the movement of air or water through a specialized gas exchange organ, such as lungs or gills • Gas Exchange: the diffusion of O2, CO2 between air or water and the blood at the respiratory surface • Circulation: the transport of dissolved O2, CO2 thought the body, along with nutrients, wastes, and other molecules, via the circulatory system • Cellular Respiration: the cell’s use of O2 and production of CO2; in tissues, gas exchange occurs between blood and cells - Fick’s Law is a mathematical formula relating surface area, partial pressures, and thickness of barrier of diffusion to the overall rate of diffusion for gas exchange • If P1>2, then O2 is lost to the environment - There are different organs among organisms that allow for gas exchange • Gills: aquatic organisms; maintain a high surface area for maximum gas exchange. - External Gills: extend into direct contact with the water, gills are moved in the water too to increase exposure to water - Internal Gills: must have water brought to them through the body cavity 1 Thursday, April 21, 2016 • Insect Tracheae: spiracles (analogous to plant stomata) allow air to enter the body; travels throughout the body in tiny tubes (tracheae) to target tissue;Blood within the circulatory system has nothing to do with gas exchange since the gas is delivered directly to the bodily tissue • Lungs: airways into the lungs begin in the nose/ mouth, into the trachea, bronchi, and then the bronchioles; thepharynx houses the vocal chords; alveoli are air-filled sacs surrounded by capillaries and the site of gas exchange - Gas exchange surfaces will always be wet to increase the gas exchange constant K in Fick’s law - Circulation: blood consists of leukocyte (white blood cells, immune function) erythrocytes (red blood cells, responsible for O2 transport), and platelets • Hemoglobin : thousands are found inside one red blood cell (RBC), each molecule able to hold up to four O2 molecules due to having four Iron bonding sites; 98.5% of O2 loads to hemoglobin, 1.5% loads to blood plasma - Affinity: strength of bond between Hb (hemoglobin) and O2; as more O2 bind to the hemoglobin, it undergoes a conformational change that increases its affinity to bind to more O2 molecules; when few molecules are bound, its shape changes back to having a lowered affinity for O2 • Poorly oxygenated blood are a darker shade red, while oxygenated blood is a brighter shade of red; there is no “blue blood” based on the external appearance of veins through the skin 2 Thursday, April 21, 2016 - Human Circulatory System: the 4-chambered heart • Closed: directionality, high-pressured system to carry/deliver nutrients, O2, and wastes FAST • Arteries: carry blood away from the heart • Veins: carry blood away to the heart • Capillaries: gas/nutrient exchange - Atherosclerosis: artery with cholesterol build up - Myocardial infarction: death of some tissue in the heart, treated with coronary bypass surgery; 9 bypasses can be done in just one surgery 3


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