Topic 4 and 5 - Exam 2
Topic 4 and 5 - Exam 2 PSY311
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holly Houser on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY311 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Winters in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
PSY 311 21715 Topic 4 Why we have emotions part 2 quotBlue Ribbonquot emotions Blue Ribbonquot emotion Always conscious always shows the subjective experiential component 0 Negative blue ribbon emotions stimulate cognitive processing such as re ection thought and a retrospective analysis of actions what did I just do 0 Counterfactual thinking Counterfactual thinking did something that lead to a negative blue ribbon emotion so you re really upset for some reason 0 Cognitive What did I do amp how could I have done it differently The negative blue ribbon emotion not only brings cognition into a person s emotional world the emotional experienced is a source of knowledge used for future decisions Somatic markers either tell you go for it or avoid Sample questions 1 quotBlue ribbonquot emotions are b Generated by automatic appraisal c Are useful in making decisions in present but not in future 2 quotBlue ribbonquot emotions 3 quotBlue ribbonquot emotions b Stimulate cognitive processing such as re ection amp thought c Stimulate counterfactual thinking d Are always conscious show the subjectiveexperiential component of an emotion Automatic affect automatic emotion Sometimes conscious often not 0 Typically a quick twinge quotgut feelingquot or intuition of something feeling good or bad feeling rightquot a hunch Based on associative emotional memories m o Is developed via classical conditioning when a fullblown blue ribbonquot emotion is evoked recall the case of Peter Activates approach or avoidance tendencies rather than learning via a somatic markerthat is sent from the body somatic component of the emotion to the central executive in prefrontal cortex that generates decisions s important to making decisions in the present not the future Automatic emotions are developed via cassica conditioning and they re sometimes conscious often not Sample questions 1 Automatic emotions are a 2 Automatic emotions are a Developed via classical conditioning when a fullblown blue ribbon emotion is evokes b Sometimes conscious often not c Typically a quick twinge gut feeling or intuition of something feeling good or bar Use the quotcalculusphilosoph y paper example to show how we learn from negative quotblue ribbon emotions In this case the quotemotional distress evoked by failure and indicate the role of automatic emotions affect and somatic markers in making decisions based on what was learned from a negative emotional experience Calculusphilosophy paper example Professor took class in calculus Friend told him most people get Cs in the class amp that he should get out of it but it was past the drop period Got a 95 on the rst exam amp 97 on the second and 91 on third Solid A average Felt on top of the world Final exam was cumulative amp was worth 50 of the grade Spent his time playing a lot of games amp only studies for one day Got an F on the nal amp got a C in the course 2 years later something happened that reminded him of this instance In one class there was only one requirement which was a paper Emotional reaction paper not due for 3 months so it s a great opportunity to procrastinate Somatic marker negative based on emotional memory from calculus experience Decided to start on the paper immediately Asked a friend to type the paper for him Sample questions 1 Which is true about the calculusphilosophy paperquot b The blue ribbon emotion was generated by a schema based appraisal 2 Which is true about the calculusphilosophy paperquot b Automatic appraisal elicited a somatic marker during the philosophy class c A somatic marker was used to make the motivated decision to start working on the philosophy paper early in the semester d The emotional memory developed was an association between procrastination amp quotemotional distressquot 3 The reason why the quotcalculusphilosophy paperquot example was given in class was b To show how we learn from automatic emotions i This is wrong because we learn from negative blue ribbon emotions c To show how automatic emotions in uence future decisions i This is wrong because automatic emotions in uence present decisions The emotional distressquot a blue ribbon emotion from failing the calculus exam Elicited re ection learning and counterfactua thinking and the motivation to learn from the experience 0 Led to the updating of an inadequate lfthen rule a type of cognitive content see next slide 0 The emotional memory procrastination and emotional distressquot was developed during the experience A situation two years later led to the retrieval of this emotional memory which in turn led to the generation of a somatic marker The somatic marker was used in making an important decision How do negative blue ribbon emotions in uence current decisions 0 Blue ribbon emotions can help future decisions 0 People make poor decisions and show poorjudgment when experiencing a negative blue ribbon emotion People make poor decisions when emotionally distressed because they embrace the implicational belief that the decision will terminate or decrease the intensity of the negative emotion called mood repair or mood regulation 0 Example of friend during nancial crisis 0 Friend started making a lot of bad decisions 0 He threw out a million dollars amp lost all of it 21915 Topic 5 Can emotions be nonconscious Can an emotion that is unconsciously caused but not felt lead to changes in motivated behavior motivational component of an emotion That is can subjects show changes in motivated behavior when they are unable to report feeling subjective experiential component of an emotion an emotion Yes Experimental paradigm Behavioral state words or nonwords were repeatedly and subliminally 23 milliseconds presented as CSs conditioned stimuli followed by supraliminally presented and thus consciously perceptible positive affect words that served as USs unconditioned stimuli Subjects were told that they would be presented words on a screen that represented various activities and asked if they wanted to engage in the activity After a number of trials 55 were asked if they wanted to accomplish this activity 0 Positive supraliminal nice pleasant How a Positive Emotional Memory is Learned and How it Produces a Positive Somatic Marker alarm FluIJ Ef um I I 39II39I i dm n d 5mth ES lLllnntlilimecl Stimulus ME Was 11in suhilirni all The w Hi in i i uipralliminall Emili nal Marni Event Asked if he wants the I puzzle tntmnalim lppraall MMF I E E emotion and ipti ilive sun liu As they re paired an emotional memory forms Emotional memory is used in automatic appraisal to generate an emotion Experimenter asks if they want to do a puzzle amp they say yes Somatic marker working at an unconscious level Sample questions 1 Which is true a b An experiment discussed in class involving doing puzzles amp stimuli that were presented subliminally provide evidence that subjects can show changes in motivated behavior when they are unable to report feeling an emotion c An emotion that s not felt can lead to changed in motivated behavior d When an emotional memory is developed through classical condition the CS can activate the emotional memory which then leads to motivated behavior 2 Which is true of the Custers amp Arts puzzle experiment b A positive somatic marker resulted from the classical conditioning that took place in the experiment c Classical conditioning led to an increase in incentive motivation d There was an increase in incentive motivation in this study but the subjects weren t consciously aware of it 3 Which is true of the Custers amp Arts puzzle experiment b quotBlue ribbonquot emotions were produced by this procedure i You feel these they re very powerful Subjects consciously felt that they liked the behavioral state words but were NOT motivated to participate in the activity i There s a difference between liking something and being motivated to do it Subjects produced a new ifthen rule at the end of the experiment 4 Which is false of the Chinese ideograph experiment n D i These only change When you have a negative blue ribbon emotion Classical conditioning took place as a result of the procedure used in the study The CS in this study was the Chinese ideograph Subjects have positive emotional responses to the Chinese ideographs after they had been repeatedly presented immediately prior to the happy faces 5 What s true of nonconscious emotions a Result from schemabased appraisal i It s blue ribbon emotions that do that F7 0 c Cannot occur without a change in an ifthen rule i There 5 no cognitive changes here 6 What s TRUE about Wickielman Berridge amp Wilbarger study assessing subjects pouring and drinking of a novel beverage after they were repeatedly exposed to pictures of emotional facial expressions Happy neutral angry presented subliminally l they were given a novel lemonlime drink to pour consume and evaluate They only testes subjects who were thirsty a the beginning of the study 7 Which is true of the Custers amp Arts puzzle experiment Q N b Following the presentation of the positive affect words such as nice subjects reported feeling happy i They didn 1 report it c This experiment involved operant conditioning i It involved Classical conditioning 8 Which is true of the Custers amp Arts puzzle experiment b Blue ribbon emotions were elicited by the experiment c Subjects reported experiencing somatic markers d All the above
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