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chapter 5

by: sumreen Notetaker

chapter 5 DEP 3115

sumreen Notetaker
GPA 3.1
Development in Infancy
Bethany Reed Sutherland

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Development in Infancy
Bethany Reed Sutherland
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by sumreen Notetaker on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DEP 3115 at Florida International University taught by Bethany Reed Sutherland in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views.

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Date Created: 02/22/15
Chapter 5 Physical and Motor Development 4 Principles of Develobment 1 Directionality Cephalocaudal from head to tail 0 Proximodistal from center to periphery Mass to specific from larger to smaller muscle groups 0 Hierarchical integration from simple skills to integrated complex skills 2 Independence of Systems 0 Different systems develop along different time courses Nervous system then body size then special characteristics form top to bottom 3 Canalization Robustness and resilience of development to adverse circumstances 4 Statistically normal 0 Developmental characteristics follow normal distribution Physical Growth 0 Measured by 0 Weight 0 Height 0 Head circumference 0 Head body ratio head is 14 size of body at birth 18 as an adult Growth charts should be made for individual countnes o Feeding styles should be taken into consideration when looking at growth chart 0 Failure to thrive occurs when infants growth falters signi cantly 0 Infant nutrition 1 Nutritional requirements 0 Newborns eat approximately 1012 times a day within rst 2 weeks tapers off to 68 timesday until solids are introduced 0 Infants should not drink cow s or other animal milk until 1 year of age only breast milk or formula 0 When infants start drinking milk it should be whole milk 0 Solid foods should not be given before 46 months of age infant needs head control 2 Breastfeeding Colostrum thick yellowish uid produced within rst days after birth full of protein and antibodies 0 Milk production begins approximately 2 days after birth 0 American academy of pediatrics recommends that infants be exclusively breast fed until 6 months of age and try to continue after 12 months of age 0 Need supplement breastfed infants with vitamin D 3 Breastfeeding Stats 0 Increasing trend 0 Older mothers gt younger mothers 0 High SES gt Low SES Racial differences 4 Breastfeeding Bene ts 0 For baby 0 Antibodies help build infant immunity 0 Infant less likely to get upset stomach and overeat o Decreased incidence of obesity later in life 0 Slight bump in IQ during later childhood 0 For mother 0 Increased oxytocin helps uterus return to normal size and reduces postpartum bleeding enhance motherinfant bond 0 Burns 500 caloriesday help mother get vack to prepregnancy weight 0 Reductions in later incidence of hypertension ovarian cancer premenopausal breast cancer 5 Formula feeding Excellent alternative to breastfeeding FDA monitored and regulated Problems can arise if not properly prepared 0 3055 of parents report unsafe practices 0 not washing hands before handling 0 heating directly in microwave 0 not properly sterilizing bottles and nipples 6 of parents report not discarding leftover formula that is 2hrs old Newborn Screening 1 3 mandatory tests Phenylketonuria metabolic disorder that leads to accumulation of amino acid phenylalanine leads to developmental delay autistic like behavior Congenital hypothyroidism inadequate production of thyroid hormone leads to cognitive disabilities and growth disorder Galactosemia metabolic disorder that affects how the body processes galactose leads to failure to thrive cognitive disabilities and death 2 Hearing Screenings


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