Popular in Course
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by sumreen Notetaker on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.
Reviews for chapter 5
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/22/15
Chapter 5 Four categories of determinants General cultural factors Individual factors Interpersonal factors Setting Categories of determinants a mid level model I Parental Psychological Resources developmental history and personality I Child Characteristics gender and behavior I Contextual Sources of Stress amp Support marital relations social networks work relationships I These three in uence how a parent interacts with a child I According to Belsky parent s personality is the most important Problem with Belsky s model I Ignores a number of other determinants of child rearing both proximal and distal l Proximal determinants l Situational in uences home public place I Transient parental qualities mood illness I Distal in uences l Cultural background I SES I This is why Belsky s model is considered a midlevel model It doesn t address proximal or distal in uences but captures what is in between Bio ecological Systems Model I Remember Bronfenbrenner s Bioecological Systems Theoory from Chapter 2 I More effective way of organizing parental determinants l Macrosystem Cultural institutions amp beliefs I Exosystem Parental employment parental social support I Microsystem situational variables parental mood Cultural and Distal determinants l Culture l Way of life shared by its members I Affects values behavior I Crosscultural studies I Few parenting differences in infancy I Differences emerge later I Socioeconomic Status I Based on occupation amp education I Can in uence values amp behavior I Most common nding is that parents of low SES are more likely to use physical punishment than parents from middle class I It is theorized that this is due to the parents work values I Low SES obedience conformity I High SES responsibility initiative l Religion l Concerns what is valued in life I Promotes family involvement l Religious parents more likely to value tradition obedience respect for authority and religious faithe over independence and selfdetermination l Conservative Protestants positive attitude and more frequent use of CP Contextual Determinants l Parental Employment l Husbands of working wives more involved in child care though still unequal l Maternal employment usually positive but may cause some stress and guilt I Studies conclude maternal employment has a positive impact on parenting and is NOT a risk factor for children I Stress l A function of individual child characteristics parent characteristics and situations I Marital or relationship stressors I Work or nancial stressors l Personal characteristics l Childrelated stressors l Stressed parents are less nurturing more irritable with a negative impact on children I Social Support assistance from others I Can help counter effects of stress I Family friends I Instrumental assistance Nanny or babysitter I Neighborhood l Urban poverty crime health problems academic failure substance abuse teen pregnancy I Distrust of nonfamilies individuals l Early independence and self reiance l Early withdrawal of emotional support quottough lovequot Stable Parent and Child Characteristics l Parent Qualities l Gender Do mothers and fathers parent differently I Fathers physicay stimulating and rough in play I Mothers verbal or didactic play I Prior experiences quotghosts in the nurseryquot how parents were parented l Personality capacity for empathy l Social cognition parents expectations attributions and attitudes degree to which a parent believes they control their child s behavior I Child Qualities l Age l Gender I Birth order I Temperament how parents relate to it quotGoodness of fitquot I Other characteristics child disability prematurity etc Stable Family Characteristics I Family Qualities l Structure l Single or twoparent l Single parents spend less time with their children less supervision more stress than married parents I How many children in the home I The more children the more punitive I Marital Relations l Happy marriages gt good parenting practices Situational Determinants l Context l Setting I Who is present I Time of day l Transient Parent Characteristics l Shortterm goals I Childcentered l Emotions eg parental frustration l Transient Child Characteristics I Emotions Behavior lnterreations among determinants l Additive cumulative effects I Eg stressful situations can add up I Also called quotrisk factorsquot I Moderating affects the direction or strength between 2 variables I Eg supportive spouse l Mediating how or why a variable affects another I Eg perception of economic strain l Compensation If one variable is strong enough it can compensate for another
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'