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Human Physiology Chapter 19 Notes

by: MBattito

Human Physiology Chapter 19 Notes BIOL 3160

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biological Sciences > BIOL 3160 > Human Physiology Chapter 19 Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover material from Chapter 19
Human Physiology
Dr. Tamara McNutt-Scott
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by MBattito on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3160 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Tamara McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 04/21/16
Chapter  19:  Regulation  of  Metabolism       • To  sustain  life,  living  tissue  require  energy  which  is  derived  from   consumption  of  foodstuffs   o If  inadequate,  catabolize  body’s  carbohydrates,  proteins  and  lipids   • Energy  value  of  food  is  measure  in  kilocalories   o 1  kcal  =  1000  calories   • Metabolic  rate  (MR)   o Total  rate  of  body  metabolism     o Measured  by:   § Amount  of  heat  generated   § Amount  of  oxygen  consumed   o Influenced  by  a  variety  of  factors   § Temperature   § Individual  energy  requirements   § Physical  activity   o Basal  metabolic  rate  (BMR):  MR  of  an  awake  relaxed  individual  12-­‐14   hours  after  eating  at  a  comfortable  temperature   § Influenced  by  age,  sex,  body  surface  area  and  thyroid  activity     • Positive/negative  energy  balance   o Caloric  intake  >  energy  expenditure   § Stored  as  fat   o Caloric  intake  <  energy  expenditure   § Weight  loss   • Anabolism  and  catabolism   o Synthesis  and  breakdown  reactions   o Occur  simultaneously  and  constantly     § Turnover  rate   • Essential  nutrients   o Not  synthesized  by  body,  must  be  in  diet     § Amino  acids  and  fatty  acids   Caloric  Expenditures   • Comprised  of  3  components   o BMR  –  constitutes  majority  of  total  caloric  expenditure     o Adaptive  thermogenesis     § Heat  energy  expended  in  response  to   • Change  in  ambient  temperature  –  cold  induces   cutaneous  vasoconstriction  and  shivering   • Digestion  and  absorption  of  food  –  thermic  effect  of   food     § Dependent  on  cold  and  diet   § Regulated  by  brain   • Sympathoadrenal  system   o Physical  activity   § Raises  MR  and  energy  expenditure  in  skeletal  muscle   § Contribution  highly  variable   Hormonal  Regulation  of  Metabolism   • Absorption  of  nutrient  is  not  continuous   o Absorptive  state   § Time  period  following  meal   o Postabostive  (fasting)  state   • Observe  plasma  concentrations  of  energy  substrates  remain  relatively   constant   o When  high,  moved  and  deposited  into  energy  reserves   o Can  withdraw  from  energy  reserve  when  fasting   • Rate  of  deposit  and  withdrawal  of  energy  substrates  from  reserves  and   conversion  from  one  form  to  another  is  controlled  by  hormones        


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