Human Physiology Chapter 19 Notes
Human Physiology Chapter 19 Notes BIOL 3160
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by MBattito on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3160 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Tamara McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Chapter 19: Regulation of Metabolism • To sustain life, living tissue require energy which is derived from consumption of foodstuffs o If inadequate, catabolize body’s carbohydrates, proteins and lipids • Energy value of food is measure in kilocalories o 1 kcal = 1000 calories • Metabolic rate (MR) o Total rate of body metabolism o Measured by: § Amount of heat generated § Amount of oxygen consumed o Influenced by a variety of factors § Temperature § Individual energy requirements § Physical activity o Basal metabolic rate (BMR): MR of an awake relaxed individual 12-‐14 hours after eating at a comfortable temperature § Influenced by age, sex, body surface area and thyroid activity • Positive/negative energy balance o Caloric intake > energy expenditure § Stored as fat o Caloric intake < energy expenditure § Weight loss • Anabolism and catabolism o Synthesis and breakdown reactions o Occur simultaneously and constantly § Turnover rate • Essential nutrients o Not synthesized by body, must be in diet § Amino acids and fatty acids Caloric Expenditures • Comprised of 3 components o BMR – constitutes majority of total caloric expenditure o Adaptive thermogenesis § Heat energy expended in response to • Change in ambient temperature – cold induces cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering • Digestion and absorption of food – thermic effect of food § Dependent on cold and diet § Regulated by brain • Sympathoadrenal system o Physical activity § Raises MR and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle § Contribution highly variable Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism • Absorption of nutrient is not continuous o Absorptive state § Time period following meal o Postabostive (fasting) state • Observe plasma concentrations of energy substrates remain relatively constant o When high, moved and deposited into energy reserves o Can withdraw from energy reserve when fasting • Rate of deposit and withdrawal of energy substrates from reserves and conversion from one form to another is controlled by hormones
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