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BY 124 1/14/16

by: Heidi Mikell

BY 124 1/14/16 BY 124

Heidi Mikell

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Exam 1 notes Plant evolution Plant adaptations Non-vascular plants Vascular plants Plant lifecycles
Dr. Cusic
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Mikell on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BY 124 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Cusic in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Date Created: 04/21/16
BY 124 Dr. Cusic Exam 1 1/14/16 1. In order for plants to become land dwellers… a. Obtain water through their roots b. Prevent transpiration (water loss) by a waxy cuticle c. Gas exchange through stomata i. Carbon Dioxide in ii. Oxygen (and some water) out d. Overcome gravity i. Cell walls for structure and support ii. Lignin in secondary growth 1. More rigid iii. Vascular system for more rigidity and support 1. Mainly due to xylem e. Pollination i. No more flagellated sperm 1. Do not need water for sperm transport ii. Pollinated by bees, birds, wind, insects, bats, animals (deer) f. Zygotes need water i. Keep in archegonium g. Transportation of nutrients i. Xylem transports water ii. Phloem transports nutrients and sugars h. Protection against predation i. Thorns, toxins, nettles 1. Ex: peppermint i. UV radiation threat i. Has certain pigment to absorb or deflect light 2. Plant evolution a. Ancestral green algae b. Land plants i. Nonvascular 1. Bryophytes ii. Vascular 1. Seeds a. Gymnosperms b. Angiosperms 2. Flowers a. Angiosperms 3. Evolutionary trends a. Reduction of haploid dominant stage and rise of diploid dominant stage 4. Nonvascular Plants a. “Bryophytes” b. Dominant stage: Haploid (n) gametophyte c. Nonvascular d. No true roots/stems/leaves 5. Vascular Plants a. “tracheophytes” i. named after tracheocytes in xylem b. dominant stage: diploid (2n) sporophyte c. vascular d. true roots/stem/leaves 6. Bryophytes a. Hepatophyta- liverworts b. Bryophyta- moss c. Anthocerophyta- hornworts i. Both gametophyte and sporophyte at same stage d. Do embobition i. Soaking up of water (osmosis) ii. Diffusion (nutrients) e. wort = “herb” 7. Life Cycle of a Moss a. Both male and female gametophyte i. Haploid (n), dominant stage b. Rhizoid = root-like structure that absorbs water c. Flagellated sperm (n) and egg (n) made by mitosis because its already haploid (n) d. Fertilization in archegonium produces a diploid (2n) zygote. The zygote undergoes mitosis to produce a diploid (2n) sporophyte with sporangium. Cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid (n) spores. The spores go through mitosis to produce a haploid (n) gametophyte. The gametophyte uses mitosis to produce haploid (n) gametes. e. Spores are held in a capsule. i. They don’t like moisture ii. They are released when conditions are dry 1. They are released slowly and not all at once 8. Asexual Bryophyte Reproduction a. Liverworts drop their gemmae which then divide by mitosis to form more liverworts 9. Peat a. Water absorbing moss i. Makes a peat bog (very dense) ii. Takes millions of years to let grow iii. Harvested for fuel, diapers, gardens, and scotch whiskey iv. Preserved/mummified people without any decay 1. Tollund Man 10. Vascular plants a. “tracheophytes” b. diploid (2n) dominant c. more adapted to land d. lignin for support e. Tracheids = main cells in xylem 11. Seedless Vascular plants a. Most have true roots/stems/leaves b. Sporangia branch to create more sporangia c. Microphyll and megaphyll leaves d. Types of sporangia i. Strobili- cluster of sporangia ii. Sori- on fern 12. Homosporous Plants a. Sporangium on sporophyll i. Spore becomes a bisexual gametophyte that produces sperm and egg 13. Heterosporous Plants a. All seed plants b. Megasporangium on megasporphyll i. Megaspore grows into female gametophyte which produces egg c. Microsporangium on microsporophyll i. Microspore grows into male gametophyte which produces sperm 14. Plant evolution a. Evolved when the Devonian period was ending and the Carboniferous period was beginning. b. Seedless plants c. no competition so they grew much taller than the ones today i. Today a fern is the only seedless plant that can grow very tall 15. Rhizome = like a horizontal stem on some plants 16. Club moss is not really moss a. AKA Quillwort 17. Seedless Vascular Plant phyla a. Lycophyta b. Monilophyta (no longer called Pterophyta) – whisk fern, fern, horsetail c. Equisetum –horsetail, scouring rushes i. Name “scouring rushes” because silica in them was used to scrub pot d. Fern have sori and are homosporous 18. Fern Lifecycle a. Diploid (2n) sporophyte dominant b. Homosporous c. Grow on rhizome d. Young leaf = “fiddlehead”; developed leaf = “frawn” e. Gametophyte is free living and can do photosynthesis f. Sperm and egg develop at different times to prevent self-fertilization g. Only the sporophyte has a vascular system h. Formed coal beds over time 19. Seed Plants a. Carboniferous period was very dry. i. Seed plants adapted and became the dominant type of plant. ii. Pollen grains replaced the swimming flagellated sperm iii. Pollen tube developed so sperm can travel to egg iv. Gametophyte is smaller and held inside sporophyte 1. Not free living 2. Provides nourishment to sporophyte v. Seed encloses, protects, and disperses embryo b. Gymnosperm i. “naked seed” ii. megaspore (n) made by megasporangium (2n) is the egg iii. pollen (n) travels down pollen tube to fertilize egg to become an embryo (2n) 1. gametophyte provides food and seed coat iv. Gymnosperm Phyla 1. Cycadophyta – cycads 2. Ginkophyta – ginko, a. “golden rain” because leaves turn bright yellow and fall within about two days b. one species left that was saved by Buddhist monks c. very resistant to pollution


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