Chapter 4 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Edelstein on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr Osborne in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
Chapter 4 Socialization process in which people learn the attitudes values and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture happens through human interactions that begin at infancy and continue through retirement Personality referring to a person s typical pattern of attitudes needs characteristics and behavior Con ict nature vs nurture is personality formed through social interactions or the way one is born and how they inherently are sabelle Case Study secluded in a dark room for six years had no developmental skills couldn t speak afraid of strangers children need socialization in the form of love care and affection Minnesota Twin Family Study follows 137 sets of identical twins reared apart at birth to determine what similarities they show in personality traits behavior and intelligence Similar temperaments voice patterns nervous habits hereditary Different attitudes values and chosen mates and drinking habits environmental Our concept of who we are emerges as we interact with others Self a distinct identity that sets us apart from others Cooley LookingGlass Self we learn who we are by interacting with others view of ourselves comes from direct contemplation of personal qualities and our impressions of how others perceive us Three phases 1 Imagine how we present ourselves to others 2 Imagine how others evaluate us intelligent attractive shy etc 3 Develop a feeling about ourselves respect or share from the impressions Mead Stages of Self model of the process by which self emerges in three stages 1 Preparatory imitate people around us understand symbols 2 Play pretend to be other people 3 Game grasp our social positions Generalized Other attitudes viewpoints and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in hisher behavior Mead Theory of Self the self begins at the privileged and central position l Signi cant Others as we get older we care about others more than just ourselves think babies as most sel sh individuals who are most important in the development of self many young people nd themselves drawn to the same work that their parents engage in GOFFMAN Presentation of Self many of our daily activities involve attempts to convey impressions of who we are Early Life lmpression Management the individual learns to slant hisher presentation of self to create distinctive appearances and satisfy certain audiences Dramaturgical Approach people resemble performances in action clerk may try to appear busier than heshe is if a supervisor is watching Face Work feeling the need to maintain a proper image of the self if we are going to continue the social interaction PIAG ET Cognitive Theory of Development four stages in the development of children s thought process 1 Sensorimotor children use their senses to make discoveries 2 Preoperational children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas 3 Concrete Operational children engage in more logical thinking learning that even a formless lump of clay can be shaped into something that is real 4 Formal Operational adolescents become capable of sophisticated abstract thought and can deal with ideas and values in a highly logical manner Piaget said that interaction is key to development saying that as children grow older they pay attention to much more with regards to how others behave and why they behave in these ways Agents of Socialization 1 Family where the lifelong process of learning that begins shortly after birth starts Family members constitute an important part of newborns and children s social environments administering their needs by feeding cleaning carrying and comforting Exposure to cultural assumptions with gender and race occurs through family members Gender Role expectations regarding the proper behavior attitudes and activities of particular genders Parents play a critical role in guiding children into gender roles deemed appropriate in society 2 School schools have an explicit mandate to socialize people especially in the USA Schools foster competition through builtin systems of reward and punishment like grade evaluations Samuel Bowles and Herbert Ginits Schools ful ll functions of teaching children the values and customs of the larger society and reinforce the divisive aspects of society 3 Peer Group peer groups increasingly assume the role of Mead s signi cant others 4 Mass Media and Technology television and the internet are increasingly important critical forces in the socialization of children in the USA Young people imitate what they see through the media in their behavior whether this is good or bad 5 Workplace allows one to learn how to behave approrpriately in a professional environment There is a change in socialization in the workplace from an afterschool job to fulltime employment Rite of Passage means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person s status These can mark separation or incorporation l worldwide social phenomenon that mark stages of development in the course of life and indicate that the process of socialization continues through all stages of life Life Course Approach sociologists who look closely at the social factors that in uence people throughout their lives from birth to death including gender and income recognizing that biological changes mold but don t dictate human behavior Anticipatory Socialization the process of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions occupations and social relationships A culture can function more efficiently and smoothly if members become acquainted with the norms values and behavior associated with a social position before actually assuming that status Resocialization the process if discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as a part of a transition in one s life Total Institution an institution that regulates all aspects of a person s life under a single authority such as a prison the military a mental hospital or a convent Goffman39s Four Traits of Total Institutions 1 All aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the control of a single authority 2 Any activities within the institution are conducted in the company of others in the same circumstances for example army recruits or novices in a convent 3 The authorities devise rules and scheduled activities without consulting participants 4 All aspects of life in a total institution are designed to ful ll the purpose of the organization So all activities in a monastery might be centered on prayer and communion with God Role Transitions Through Life We don t experience things the same way at different points in life How we move through our life course depends on our personal preferences and circumstances l Midlife Crisis a stressful period of selfevaluation experienced by men and women when they realize they have not achieved basic goals and ambitions in life and have little time left to do so The Sandwich Generation adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children caregiving that goes in two directions
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