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Psych 201 week & 3

by: Tayler Cobb

Psych 201 week & 3 Psychology 201 (Mind and Brain)

Tayler Cobb

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Week two and three notes
psychology 201 Mind and Brain
Dasa Zeithamova Demircan
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tayler Cobb on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 201 (Mind and Brain) at University of Oregon taught by Dasa Zeithamova Demircan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see psychology 201 Mind and Brain in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 04/21/16
Psychology 201­Mind and Brain  Week 2 & 3  Chapter 2  ­the scientific method in psychology  Theory, hypothesis, data, cyclical process  ­theory: examination based on data  ­hypothesis: prediction based on theory  ­research:test hypothesis—> either support theory or fails to support theory  Good theories: generate testable and falsifiable ­theories can be proven wrong but not right  ­we say (consistent with data)  ­no amount of data can prove a theory “right”  4 goals of psychological science  1) description: mental process and behaviors  2) understanding: (explaining) developing theories of how mind works  3) prediction: using theories to predict thoughts  4) Application/Control: applying theories to influence behavior and though.  How do we observe?  ­descriptive data: observing and classifying behavior  Correlational studies ­examine how variables er related in the real world  ex) sleep and stress are co related  Operational definition of variables  ­includes how it is measured (self report, objective, measures)  ­Measure should have validity and reliability.  Correlational research drawbacks:  ­casual  ­directionality ­poor sleep <—> stress   Chapter 3  Neurons: receive, transmit, integrate info in nervous system ­electrical signals within neurons  ­chemical between neurons  Dendrites: detect chemicals from neighboring neurons (send chemicals)  Cell Body: receives information form dendrites  Axon: electrical impulses are transmitted (receive chemicals)  synapse: neurons communicate by sending info  ion channels: in membrane, allow in and out of cell when neuron transmits signals down axon   Agonist: drug enhances neurotransmitters action  Antagonist: drug inhibits neurotransmitter action  Parts of brain:  frontal: thought, planning, movement  parietal : touch, spatial relations occipital : vision  temporal : hearing, memory  Subcostal structures:  ­cerebral cortex: hemispheres  ­thalamus: receives incoming info  ­hypothalamus: thirst, hunger, agression, lust  ­hippocampus: new episodic memories—> brain grows with new memories  ­amygdala: emotional processing & memories  ­basal ganglia: voluntary movement, learning habits Much of what we know about functional specialization in the brain was learned from lesion  studies  The story of Phineus Gage:  ­An accident with dynamite drove an iron rod into his cheek and through his frontal  lobes.  He survived the accident but his behavior and personality changed after the  accident:  lack of ability to plan, control, and assess behavior.  Why is the case of Phineas Gage important to psychology?  It is a miracle that he survived the accident.  It was the first demonstration of a relationship between brain structure and personality.  It demonstrated that Gage’s cognitive functions were completely intact despite the     accident.  It demonstrated that humans do not need their leU prefrontal cortex.   neural plasticity: change in structure, function, or organization of the brain in response to injurer  experience  genotype: genetic makeup  Phenotype: physical characteristic  Contralateral Control:  left hemisphere controls right side of body, vice versa 


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