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Bio 106 Week 6 (Lectures 14 & 15)

by: Sheridan Lantz

Bio 106 Week 6 (Lectures 14 & 15) 2570

Marketplace > Washington State University > 2570 > Bio 106 Week 6 Lectures 14 15
Sheridan Lantz
GPA 3.89
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee

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My notes are on lectures 14: Plant Nutrition & 15: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals. These notes have everything from the lecture slides with side notes on what the professor went i...
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sheridan Lantz on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2570 at Washington State University taught by Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views.


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Date Created: 02/22/15
Plant Nutrition Lecture 14 Concept 371 Soil is a living finite resource Minerals gt Water with solutes gt Gases gt Living organisms Organic matter Top Soil Combo of organic and inorganic material 9K Mineral particles living organisms and humus the decaying organic material 9K Clay Loams equal parts sand silt and clay Anions Nitrate NO3 phosphate H2PO4and solfate 804239 0 Not bound tightly to negatively charged soil and release easy 0 But also leach out into ground water Cations Magnesium Mgz Potassium K and Calcium Ca2 Bound tightly to negatively charged soil Fertilizers Enriched in nitrogen N phosphorus P and potassium K Nitrogen synthesized with large fossil fuel energy input Soil conservation and Sustainable Agriculture Erosion Concept 372 Plants require certain chemical elements to complete their life cycle From a tiny seed to a large plant Jan Baptista can Helmont 17th century 9K A small willow tree into a pot with 909 kg of soil 9K After 5 years the tree weighted 768 kg but the soil weight only lost 006 kg Macronutrients and Micronutrients 9K More than 50 chemical elements 9K Some element are essential Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency 9K Deficiency of a mobile nutrient Usually affects older organs more than young ones 9K Deficiency of a less mobile nutrient Usually affects younger organs more than older ones Common deficiencies Nitrogen potassium and phosphorus l 9wquot summing boam quot e i 00nt 133 9 W l tun toll J sou quot 39 v T 239 s 33 m m vW quot0r Naming mu magnum quotWquot m 39 a quot hadd Orgole m hum Concept 373 Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms Symbiotic nitrogen fixation Rhizobacteria Mycorrhizae The Role of Bacteria in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation 9K Provide some plant species with a builtin source of fixed nitrogen 9K From an agricultural standpoint Symbiotic plants and nitrogenfixing bacteria occur in the legume family peasbeans and other similar plants Rhizobium Infection thread bacteria 0 Bactorolds lorrn 0 Chemical signals attract bacteria Bactoroid 0 4quot 039 2 lntected root hair Dividing cells in root cortex Dividing cells in poricyclo Developing root nodule A r quoti I 39v quotp 39 a 39 39 u V A 39 4 n 39v quotJ h t l a s 39 s 39 8 t d a I i v 7 3C 9390 l A I 39 t 39 39 gt i 39 i 39 v s 2 c39 r quot I quot I J J 0 Nodulo forms 0 Nodqu dovolops vascular tissue Nodulo vascular Bactoroid tissue Have nutritional adaptations that use other organisms in nonmutualistic ways Epiphytes Parasites gt Carnivorous plants Mistletoe a photosynthetlc parasite Doddar a nonphotoaynthatic Indian pipe a parasite nonphotosynthatic parasite Vonus ytrap Pitchar plants Sundwa gt Not eating carbon dioxide Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals Lecture 15 Concept 391 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception to response 9K After receiving stimulation a receptor initiates a series of biochemical steps signal transduction 9K Couples the reception of stimulus to a response Reception Transduction and Response Reception 39l39ranuluclinn and Response CELL CYTOPLASM WALL cReceplion gtgt GTransducllon r D aResponse llormono or onvlronmonlsl stimulus Plssms mombrsno Resoonse often mediated by 9K Transcriptional Regulation Transcription factors control transcription expression ofgenes 9K Posttranslational modification involves activation of existing proteins in the signal response Concept 392 Plant hormones help coordinate growth development and response to stimuli Hormones are chemical signals that coordinate different parts of an organism Tropisms are often caused by hormones Auxin and cell well expansion Cell Elongation Cell Plasma wan membrane o ov 39 quotwow I A Cytokinins 9K Stimulate cell division and differentiation 9K Apical dominance terminal bud s ability to suppress development of axillary buds 9K lfthe terminal bud is removed plants become bushier Gibberellins gt Stem elongation gt Fruit Growth gt Germination After water is imbibed release of gibberellins from the embryo signals seeds to germinate Gibberellins and Germination Abscisic Acid Two of the many effects of abscisic acid ABA Seed dormancy High levels ofABA inhibit seed germination Drought tolerance ABA accumulates in leaves during drought and cause stomata closer Ethvlene a gas 9K Plants produce ethylene in response to stresses 9K Aso produced during fruit ripening and programmed cell death senescence Concept 393 Responses to light are critical for plant success Effects of light on plant morphology Called Photomorphogenesis Not only the presence of light But also direction intensity and wavelength color An action spectrum graph Depicts the relative response of a process to different wavelengths of light BlueLight Photoreceptors Various bluelight photoreceptor Control hypocotyl elongation Stomatal opening Phototropism Phytochrome39s as Photoreceptors mostly red light Seed germination Germinate when light and other conditions are near optimal Death of a shading tree or plowing of field Shade Avoidance Can sense quality of light Time of day amp seasons l Clicker Questions During photosynthesis the absorbed light energy is directly used for which of the following Phosphorylating ADP to ATP Respiration Generating excited electrons whose energy dissipation can be doubled to proton pumping Oxidative phosphorylation Convert 002 into sugars THU 00739 Most of the water taken up by a plant is A used as a solvent B used as a hydrogen source in photosynthesis C lost during transpiration D converted to 002 E used to keep cells turgid Most of the organic material of a plant comes from A Water B Carbon dioxide C Soil minerals D Atmospheric oxygen E Nitrogen The signal transduction pathway occurs in which order Response Reception and Transduction Transduction Reception and Response Reception Response and Transduction Reception Transduction and Response Transduction Response and Reception W009


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