Environmental Studies 3
Environmental Studies 3
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This 10 page Reader was uploaded by Kelsey O'Connell on Monday April 14, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 158 views.
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Can you just teach this course please? lol :)
-Mrs. Edwina Gleason
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Date Created: 04/14/14
Lecture 1 41 Walk in Music Symphonic Metamorphosis on a Theme by Karl Von Weber By Paul Hindemeth 1945 Exams Major identifications 0 Ex BLACK DEATH Bubonic plague Buboes Long Essay 0 Covers span of first half of class for midterm and one of the major environmental issues discussed late in the quarter for final Film Clip and Wak in Music Questions 0 one each only worth one point or one percent of midterm and final Multiple Choice Lecture 2 43 Walk in Music Atmospheres from 2001 A Space Odyssey Major IDs THE BONE o 2001 A Space Odyssey 0 Stanley Kubrick 0 Arthur C Clark 0 The monolith Black thing that sticks out of the ground comes up in the morning and the apes are afraid of it o Moonwatcher One of the apes who first touches the monolith Picks up the femur of the bone from the zebra Bone that he picks up becomes the very first tool 0 Weapons Uses the weapons bone to kill the tapir Bones used as clubs 0 Game Two apes are arguing over a water hole First incident of warfare over water Warfare all about THE BONE o Homo sapiens Ancestors of humans made these advancements Appeared about 150 thousand years ago Evolved from manapes YALIS QUESTION Why do you guys have so much cargo and we don39t o Jared Diamond Environmental determinism Said that raw materials for technological advancements were there Yali is a friend of Diamond39s from New Guinea 2 Yali is from New Guinea and Diamond is from UCLA Why world history is like an onion 0 Guns Germs and Steel Diamond tries to proceed to answer Yai s ques on New Guinea Cargo Proximate factors o Ultimate factors RANCHER POWER 0 Farmer power Ranchingherding appears to have started way before planting o Fertile Crescent First place animals were domesticated Place where there is evidence that people kept sheep and goats 0 Northern Iraq o Sheep goats pigs cattle horses Sheep and goats who can provide many things 2 Meat clothes leather cloth cheese milk Cattle cows and horses roamed the area too but they didn39t get domesticated until later Pigs were domesticated in China Advantages of domesticated animals 2 All domesticated animals are alike 2 All undomesticated animals are unalike in different ways Domestication to no longer be wild What makes the big 5 common and alike 2 They are herdpack animals 2 Hierarchical structure certain patrol certain jobs 2 Common characteristics 2 These 5 found only in Eurasia o What about camels OOO Camels are number 6 Really important in that part of world because they carry people and objects up to 1000 pounds Meet all the domesticatable criteria Perfect desert dweller Can go days without any food or water and can eat just about anything Only in Eurasia first domesticated 4000 6000 years ago 0 Bactrian 2 hump camel from central Asia 0 Dromedary 1 hump camel from the Arabian desert CEREALSPULSES o Almond trees nuts from almond trees wouldn39t taste bad whereas others would taste bitter 0 Wheat barley oats millet rice 0 Peas Cereals native to Eurasia Cereals are grasses with stems and large seed heads Diamond identifies 56 edible grasses The only cereal that even begins to come close in importance to the big 5 above Only grown in the Americas lentils chickpeas soybeans mungbean puses 9edibe seeds all native only to Eurasia o Beans o Flax cotton hemp 0 THE AXES Flax fiber that can be woven and used for a variety of things Hemp can twist the bark you can dry it and smoke it o North south dominant Americas and Africa Corn cultivation in central America Corn and ricegreat contrast in the axes o East west dominant Eurasia Transferred easier and quicker than north south o Temperate zones o Ecological barriers Very significant Africadesert and jungle Americasdesert coastal forests mountain ranges Climatological barriers Film Clip Question Example What animal does the man ape first club to death with a bone Another man ape A zebra A dog A tapir OOOO Lecture 3 48 TODAYS MUSIC Dance Baccanale from Senson and Delilah Ballet Early Readings from the reader mostly supplemental Will help with major IDs MAJOR IDS Who what when where why how environmental significance CONTAGION the spreading of disease from one individual to another by direct contact 0 Microbes Fittest microbes find a way to adapt into change and to strengthen and find a way to other hosts a germ How disease is passed from one host to another Began spreading during the first domestication of animals Found a way to latch themselves on to the humans that were domesticating the animals having sex w animals Transference can also take place when people eat raw animals Transference through coughing or sneezing o Measles tuberculosis smallpox influenza pertusses malaria immunities Measles tuberculosis smallpox come through cows Influenza comes through birds and pigs Pertusses common cold through pigs Malaria comes through birds like chickens or ducks 0 Guns Germs and Steel MESOPOTAMIA o Tigris river 0 Euphrates river 0 Surpluses The storing of food for future use 0 Scarcity Dry times and wet times so people have to deal with scarcity The absence of abundance o Cradle of western civilization 0 Babylonians Assyrians Sumerians Called themselves these names Babylon Urok Ur Cities in Mesopotamia Big populated cities Very strong economy and culture based on agriculture Places where people first heard of goats and other animals Stone Age Used very sophisticated stone tools Irrigation systems Wheat millet barley People domesticated strings of these things Very successful for centuries and milleniums The soil was very rich Had advantage of two big rivers nearby Civilization and wilderness Created by Mesopotamians built walled cities keeping themselves protected inside big step in human history First civilization to rise and fall through technology Warfare A lot of warfare that surrounded the city states in Mesopotamia Factors of war 2 Religion water rights mountain people The bigger the city state the more slavery ANCIENT EGYPT O O Protodynastic period Domesticated plants and animals Periods of ancient Egypt old middle new kingdoms Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom 1000BC Band tribe chiefdom state Chiefdom stage by SSOOBC long before anybody else Fertile crescent areas were so advanced Band system where nobody is in charge Tribe some authority but still very loose Chiefdom higher level of organization OOOO Lecture 4 410 State state level infrastructure people working for the government created pyramids Kleptocracy The state is taking the fruits of labor and using them to run the state Pharaohs The kings of Egypt throughout all of these periods Great pyramid of Khufu 2700BC 13 acres of area and almost 500 ft tall Giza Sphinx Natural irrigation Warfare and slavery Expansive kingdoms with huge professional armies and navys Had constant wars with Syrians DIAMONDS EARLY EURASIA CONT TODAYS MUSIC Mesopotamia by the B 52s King Tut by Steve Martin MAJOR IDS DYNASTIC CHINA O O O O Neolithic period Euro centrism in readings Diamond and Eurasia centrism Pigs chicken water buffalo Pigs first domesticated in china Considers water buffalo to be part of cow family Silkworms ducks geese tea peaches citrus fruits rice Silkworms first domesticated in China produced silk All first domesticated in China Rice cultivation Dynastic culture Environmental advantages for dynastic china china able to reach state level by ZOOOBC or earlier Technologically advanced Controlling waterhuge part of technological skill Grand Canal O Connected major cities Example of public works Great Wall Another example of public works Built to keep the mongols out Martial arts Spread of chinese culture WushuKung Fu Oldest of the martial arts Warfare Families always trying to maintain and get power GILGAMESH O OOOO OOOO Epic of Gilgamesh ZOOOBC or BCE First story ever written down oldest Written in Mesopotamian cuneiforms Story of a kind in Mesopotamia Written down on 12 clay tablets Only 10 survived Story of Gilgamesh Reveals a lot about Sumerian culture Story of a great flood that wipes out humanity except for one family who builds an ark Sumerians First society to develop a written language Needed a way to count all of the grain that they had in surplus Developed counting symbos3200BCE First recipe written downbeer Clay tablets Cuneiforms The first written thing Gilgamesh King of Urok 23rds God and 13 human Urok People of Urok send out a prostitute to go out and seduce Enkidu Anu Enkidu Shamhat Papyrus Indigenous to Egypt and the middle east O O Useful plant roots can burn stems can be used for sandals or boats also a paperlike substance that you can write on with ink Ancient scrolls were written on papyrus because clay tablets were too heavy Parchment Dry animal skins Nice durable writing medium lasted longer than papyrus Paper First used in Eurasia developed in China INDUS VALLEY HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND ENV O O Indus River Valley Early society that is a little bit more modern 2500 BCE Present day Pakistan Bigger than ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia Saraswati River Flowed through Indus River Valley Harappa Mohenjo daro Harappa and Mohenjo Daro major cities in Indus River Valley Written language Advanced sophisticated had a purpose but historians still trying to figure out what the writings say and the purpose of the language Religion No evidence depicting God or the devil Urban Planning 2 cities and some other minor cities had a lot of consistency 2 similar in layout and other things VVater Santa on Pottery Really good at pottery Used for storage eating utensils decorations monuments Crafts Metals Work with metals shows that they were really good with science Trade Routes Traded mostly with mesopotamia 0 Agriculture INDUS VALLEY DECLINE o Invasion 0 The Aryans Mountain peope semi nomadic nomadic Used horses to raid and conquer o The Vedic Texts Written in Sandskrit Talk a lot about the Aryans having been there 0 Over expoitation of natural resources Of wood and pasture land 0 Deforestation 0 Wood for baking Wood used to bake these bricks Also used wood for building materials 0 Bricks Huge ovens and furnaces to bake bricks in Bricks made to make structure 0 Overgrazing Lots of livestock grazing in certain areas If animals overgraze huge die off of animals 0 Climate Shifts o Droughts o Flooding Monsoon area of the wordfooding o Earthquakes o A cautionary tale
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