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Chapter 17 Book Notes

by: Carly Rasmussen

Chapter 17 Book Notes Chem 1066

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Chemistry > Chem 1066 > Chapter 17 Book Notes
Carly Rasmussen
U of M
GPA 3.93
Chemical Principles II
Dr. Driessen

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Here are notes from the book from Chapter 17 :) Good luck all!
Chemical Principles II
Dr. Driessen
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Rasmussen on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1066 at University of Minnesota taught by Dr. Driessen in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles II in Chemistry at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 02/22/15
Chapter 17 1 Overview a Kinetics applies to the speed rate of a reactionthe concentration of reactant that disappearsconcentration of product that appears per unit time b Equilibrium extent of the reaction concentration of reactants and products present after unlimited time i Balance between forward and reverse no further net change 2 The Equilibrium State and Equilibrium Constant a Equilibrium state i Given sufficient time concentrations of reactants and products no longer change ii All reactions reversible b Macroscopic view equilibrium can no longer view a change in physical properties c Molecular view of equilibrium ratefwdratemV d Quantitative view of equilibrium equilibrium constant K K kad i krev ii Particular ratio of equilibrium concentrations of productsreactants at a particular temperature e K measures reaction extent how far a reaction proceeds toward product at a given temperature i Small K little product formed no reaction ii Intermediate K significant amounts of both iii Large K little reactant remains goes to completion 3 The Reaction Quotient and Equilibrium Constant a Law of chemical equilibrium law of mass action at a given temperature a chemical system reaches a state in which a particular ratio of reactant and product concentrations has a constant value b Changing value of the reaction quotient i Reaction quotient Q ratio of concentration terms massaction expression ii At equilibrium QK 1 Initial concentration does not matter ratio is constant c Writing the reaction quotient i Must be written directly from balanced equation ii Qcreaction quotient based on concentrations Clc Dl ll aAbBCCdD QC a 111 For I A Bib iv If an overall reaction is the sum of two or more reactions the overall quotientconstant is the product of the individual quotients 1 Kovera11K1XK2XK3 1 1 Qcrev Kcrev V39 Qcfwd and Kcfwd Vi naAbBcCdD 39 n Clchl il quot I n 1 Q Q AaBb and K K vii Reactions involving pure liquids or solids 1 Eliminate terms from reaction quotient as they have constant concentrations 4 Expressing Equilibria with Pressure Terms a Relation between Kc and Kp b Gases easier to express in terms of partial pressures instead of concentrations i At constant T pressure directly proportional to molar concentration RT 3 0 szKcZ 5 Comparing Q and K to Determine Reaction Direction QCltKC a more product forms b QcgtKc more reactant forms c QC Kc no net change equilibrium 6 How to Solve Equilibrium Problems a Two main types i We know the equilibrium quantities and solve for K ii We know the K and initial quantities and solve for equilibrium quantities b Quantities to find equilibrium constant i Substituting equilibrium quantities into Q to find K ii Using a reaction table to find equilibrium constants and K 1 Balanced equation three columns of initial quantities changes in quantities and equilibrium quantities 2 Initialchangeequilibrium 3 Use partial pressures c Equilibrium constant to find quantities i Start with K and some of the equilibrium concentrations to find another concentration ii Start with K and initial quantities to find equilibrium quantities 1 Use reaction table iii If a reaction has a relatively small K and a relatively large initial reactant concentrationconcentration change X can be ignored 1 Less than 5 of the initial concentration A 2 mtzal gt 39 K C assumption justified A 3 mtzallt400 39 K C assumption not justified d Problems involving mixtures of reactants and products i First compare values of Q and K to determine direction of reaction 7 Reaction Conditions and Equilibriums 6 Chatelier S PrinCiple a Z Chatelier S PrinCiple 3 disturbances to a chemical system at equilibrium regain equilibrium undergo a net reaction that reduces the effect of the disturbance b Effect of a change in concentration i Increase in concentrationincrease in consumption ii Decrease in concentrationincrease in production iii Qualitative view 1 Right if reactant increases or product decreases 2 Left if reactant decreases or product increases iv Quantitative view 1 At given temperature Kc does not change 2 Equilibrium constants do change c Effect of a change in pressure volume i Changing concentration of gaseous component ii Adding as inert gas doesn t partake in reaction iii Changing volume of reaction vessel 1 Ngas changes towards side that will counteract pressure change increasing pressure towards lower 11 decreasing pressure towards higher 11 2 Ngas does not change no effect on equilibrium position iv Change in pressure due to change in volume does not affect Kc d Effect of change in temperature i Only change that alters K ii Heat is a component of the equilibrium system 1 Adding heat favors endothermic direction 2 Removing heat favors exothermic direction iii Temperature rise 1 Increase Kc for a system with positive A H o rm 2 Decrease Kc for a system with negative A H o rm iv Van t Hoff equationeffect of T on K K2 AH rxn l l 1 1n lt gt K1 R T1 T2 e Lack of effect of a catalyst i Shortens time to reach equilibrium ii Does not affect equilibrium position f Applying Z Chatelier S 1 rmCiple to the synthesis of ammonia i Haber process nitrogen fixation Via N2g3H2g 2NH3g A H FF 918 M ii Optimizing reaction conditions 1 Decrease product 2 Decrease volume less moles on product side 3 Decrease temperature exothermic process


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