week of feb 16-20
week of feb 16-20 Biology 230
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alejandra Brito on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 230 at San Francisco State University taught by kimberly Tanner in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Biology 230 in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
Monday 21615 5 key ideas about the biology of caner 1 Cancer is uncontrolled cell division 2 Cancerous cells have accumulated genetic damage through mutation 3 Protooncogenes are normal genes that make normal proteins that promote cell division 4 Tumor suppressor genes are normal genes that make normal proteins that inhibit abnormal cell growth 5 At least to mutation events and usually more in these types of gene are required for a cell to become cancerous 1 Cancer is uncontrolled cell division a Benign not cancerous i Cell grow local ii Doesn t move b Malignant cancer i Cells invade neighboring tissues ii Enter blood vessels iii Metastasize to different sites 2 Cancerous cells aOO Q O Cell suicide or apoptosis 3 Proto coge g 7 a Help cell divisiograppen b External signal c Transcription factor d Signal enzymes e Gain divides faster i 2x faster ii Like the gas pedal or accelerator on a car 4 Tumor suppressor a Like a brake pedal b Slow cell division c 70 of cancer has p53 i Guardian of the genome 5 At least two mutations a An accelerator gain of function mutation pro m b And Cancer and c A brake loss of function if mutation in a tumor Wed 21815 P53 is a tumor suppressor HeLa cells 0 Issues of consent in the 1950 s 0 Issues about race class and culture 0 Different o Grow outside of the human body Development of the polio vaccine Used in tens of thousands of research Has 82 chromosomes instead of 46 An active copy of telomerase which makes it replicate inde nitely OOOO Telomeres Nucleic acid 0 The shoelace tips of eukaryotic chromosomes 0 Made of repeating nucleotide 39ITAGGG Are structures not codes 0 Each time a chromosome is copied the telomeres get shorter and shorter ls part of the 98 noncoding DNA Telomerase protein Telomerase is a protein that rebuilds more telomeres in some cells by adding more 39ITAGGG repeats to the ends of chromosomes 0 Eukaryotic germ cells sperm egg 0 Embryonic stem cells Adult stem cells 0 90 cancer cells 0 HeLa cells 0 Elizabeth Blackburn Carol Greider and Jack Szostak introduced the idea of telomeres and telomerase1 Friday Feb 20 Vaccines Prevention 0 Are suspensions of killed or weaken microbes it toxins or one of its surface proteins that are administrated for prevention of infectious diseases 0 Vaccine imitate an infection and your immune system respond as real infection occurred 0 People are hesitant for the vaccines so there is an out break What is herd immunity Green is vaccinated Blue is no vaccinated Red is sick Those not vaccinated get infected faster than those who are in class we did the herd immunity stimulation Some people can t get vaccinated Pregnantwomen Babies Elderly Immune compromised people Vaccines are not 100 effective Whether you get sick depends on whether people around you are sick Wide spread vaccination has the potential to eradicate or virtually eliminate disease
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