Notes for Final to Understanding Media
Notes for Final to Understanding Media JMM 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bella Halili on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JMM 102 at University of Miami taught by Ana Francois in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age in Film at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
Chapter 13: Broadening Our Perspective on Media Effects Media Effects -a theory that looks at the connections between people’s consumption of mass media and their resulting knowledge, beliefs, ideas, and behavior -how does mass media and media culture affect what audiences think and how they behave? -area of study in psychology, sociology and communication Taking a Broader View -narrow perspective on media effects -high proﬁle tragedies are rare -people believe effect only happen to other people -with narrow perspective, no awareness or control of effect s -broader perspective= more media literate Timing of Effects -when evidence of effects starts to show -immediate: during or immediately after exposure -long term: show up after many exposures; slow and gradual -immediate effects easier to notice Type of Effects Cognitive-Type -most persuasive -overlooked -planting ideas in our minds -factual or social information -even as adults, careful attention to social models Belief-Type -belief: faith that something is true or real -show us values used by people in news and ﬁctional characters -sometimes explicitly expressed by a speciﬁc character -other times, evolves over time (many characters and situations) -beliefs about attractiveness, relationships, success Attitudinal-Type -attitude: evaluative judgement based on standard -simply accept attitude of media ﬁgure or character -make out own judgement based on standards set by media (e.g., body image) -rely on beliefs -inﬂuence stronger at general level that speciﬁc level Emotional-Type -Immediate effects: -trigger strong emotions (e.g., rage and fear) and weak emotions (e.g., sadness and boredom) -Long term effects: -desensitization after years of exposure to media violence Physiological-Type -inﬂuence on automatic bodily systems -beyond conscious control -arousal ( elevation of blood pressure, heart rate, sweaty palms) -relaxation ( lowered rate of breathing and reduced heart rate) -over time, reactions can change Behavioral-Type -trigger actions -immediate (e.g., buy a product) -long term (e.g., pattern of buying) -behavioral habits -addiction Macro-Type -inﬂuence on larger institutions (e.g., organizations, institutions, society) -direct inﬂuence -heightening of social pressures Valence of Effects -positive or negative direction: value-laden -individual perspective -societal perspective Intentionality of Effects -expose ourselves to media for certain reason: intended effect -unintended often when we are in a state of automaticity -simultaneously intended and unintended actively analyze and evaluate messages to gain more control CONCLUSIONS -don’t need to experience change for effect to happen -reinforcement is a prevalent effect immediate and long term processes work together in everyday life Implications for Media Literacy -understanding full range of effects; become more sensitized -expand your perspective -accept that you are inﬂuenced -recognizing negative and positive inﬂuences Chapter 15: Who Owns and Controls the Mass Media Why Should We Care Who Controls Mass Media? -because mass media controls information Who Controls the Media? -an important issue from the start -how much power should an individual or business be allowed to have? -monopolies good or bad? -media controls information -debate rests on conﬂict between localism and efﬁciency Key Properties -NBC: Telemundo, MSNBC, Bravo, Universal Pictures, Universal Parks & Resorts, Comcast Cable, Optimum -ABC: ESPA, Disney Channels, Walt Disney Studios, Pixar, Marvel Studios, Lucasﬁlm, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts -HBO: CNN, Cartoon Network, TNT, TBS, The CW (joint venture), Warner Bros, Pictures, DC Entertainment -FOX: Fox News, National Geographic Channels (joint venture), Twentieth Century Fox, BSkyB -CBS: The CW (joint venture), Showtime, Simon & Schuster -Paramount Pictures: BET, Comedy Central, MTV, Nickelodeon Two Competing Values -two strong values that address the issue of concentration of power -localism: values sharing of power among many -efﬁciency: values concentration of power in hands of those who can make decisions well and quickly Localism -control of important institutions should be spread out -considerable power at local level, closest to individuals; best serves society -each person is a rational being with equal say -American tradition Localism and Mass Media -media voices should be kept local to best serve the public -development of broadcasting industries -regulations based on spectrum scarcity, localism, public interest, and promotion of diversity -over time, FCC allowed more ownership concentration: pressure from broadcasters FCC Rules Station Ownership -prior to 1980s: 7AM, 7FM, and 7 TV stations -1980s and 1990s (prior to 1996): 12AM, 12 FM, and 12 stations -late 1990s to present: less that 39.5% of viewers Efﬁciency -trend towards concentration, consolidation, and centralization -increased barriers to entry -small companies go out of business or are bought out by conglomerate -In 2004, ﬁve companies owned most US media properties: Bertelsmann, Disney, News Corp., Time Warner, and Viacom -danger of narrowing the range of voices Cross-Ownership and Control Types of Concentration -horizontal merger: media company of same type -vertical merger: suppliers and/ or distributors; integrate production and distribution -conglomerate merger: combination of media companies and/ or non-media businesses -US v. Paramount 1948 ruling -landmark US Supreme Court decision -vertical integration -divest movie theaters -change economies of movie business Megamergers -mergers more and more popular -consolidation resources in fewer companies -no signs of slowing down: number of mergers among media companies more than doubled from 2011 to 2012 International Perspective -foreign companies buy and invest in American media companies -American companies market their entertainment services worldwide to increase revenue streams: US market saturated Concentration Among Ad Agencies -agencies are growing; focused on national markets rather than local companies -half of all advertising placements in the US are handled by one of four international advertising conglomerates: WPPC plc, Omnicom Group Inc., IPG, and Publicis Groupe Concentration Among Advertisers -manufacturers buying each other up -more power in marketplace and as advertisers: Procter & Gamble -products that appear very different may be marketed by same company Issues of Concern Deregulation -belief that strong vertical integration will drive away completion and exploit the consumer -consolidation trend has grown stronger than government impulse to regulate (e.g., Telecommunication Act of 1996) -FCC more concerned with companies’ interests than public’s interests -What’s next? -net neutrality Change in Content -critics argue that decreased competition leads to negative changes in message content -no evidence of decrease in quality -possibility more negative speech/ obscenity -relationship between concentration and reduced “competition” breaks down when analyzed Lack of Access -critics argue that as concentration increases, access to the media decrease -in one sense, barriers to entry have increased in certain media markets -in terms of diversity of opinion, research suggests that as the industry becomes more concentrated, programming has actually become more diverse Internet -number of websites available is huge, but internet exposure concentrated -concentration results from search engines; paid placement -computer industry hugely splintered CONCLUSION -efﬁciency vs. localism: a matter of opinion -construct an informed opinion -monitor changes to the situation and update knowledge structures -move toward concentration, but still a great deal of competition as media industries try to increase their share of the advertiser’s dollar Chapter 17: Piracy with the Media Piracy -about drawing lines: ownership and non-ownership; perimeter of a message digitalization and high speed transmission raise question about ownership rights -two value systems: media businesses v. public; copyright v. copyleft What is Piracy? -unauthorized use of things owned by other people -copyright: method to register ownership of intellectual property -mass media: tool and threat to authors Types of Piracy -bootlegging: unauthorized recording of a live delivery of a message -counterfeiting: the duplication of a copyrighted message along with its packaging, and selling it as real product -sharing copyrighted messages without paying for access: individuals make copies available to others for free Two Factors -What is a creative unit? -What does a person own when he or she buys a copy of a media message Ownership Rights -copyright owners have “sole and exclusive right to reproduce the work in any form for any reason” -life of the author plus 70 years -fair use: news reporting, criticism, teaching -copyright has its limits; becoming more ambiguous with digitalization of messages and free exchange through computers -freeware -open source software; follow-on users -copyleft licensing; creation keeps evolving -idea of creation has changed -Cathedrals to bazaars (Sunstein, 2006) How Big is the Problem? -within each media industry, complaints about loss of money due to pirating of messages -often assumed that drops in sales are due to piracy, not weak products/ changing tastes -difﬁcult to determine how widespread piracy is, especially in terms of music Music -reproduction -copying of tapes -burning CDs -ﬁle sharing of MP3; Napster -RIAA complaints -95% of all downloads pirated -loss of $12.5 billion to US economy -70,000 jobs lost -music: RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) Film -shift from theaters to rentals to downloading shared ﬁles -with pornography, pay sites to free sites -industry claimed $58 billion lost to piracy in 2012 -assumption that if pirated versions not available, people would have paid full price Print -the internet provides so much information; temptation to plagiarize -30% of college papers partially or fully plagiarized -one third of high school and college students admit to some kind of cut-and-paste plagiarism Addressing the Problem Legislation -Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 -Serial Copy Management System -Royalty tax paid to copyright owners -In-home noncommercial recording allowed -Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 -Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Act proposed in 2002 -would have required new digital media devices to be encoded with security technology -technology not feasible Law Enforcement -cracks down on pirates using old anti piracy legislation -2004 US Justice Department investigation: more that 100 people in 27 states and abroad; $50 million in theft of media messages and software -Prince of Piracy: Johnny Ray Gasca Legal Action Civil Lawsuits by Industries -RIAA v. Napster; shut down -21,000 lawsuits against people downloading illegal music; large ﬁnes -Viacom v. YouTube/ Google: settled in 2014 -2011 coalition of movie/ TV studios, cable and phone companies, and record labels; plan to monitor internet activity and get ISPs to cut off access of offenders Anti-Piracy Technology -music labels experimenting with anti-piracy technologies that combat ﬁle sharing -Sony: “key2audio” limits devices on which albums can be played -BMG Entertainment: Cactus Data Shield prevents reformatting and burning copies -digital rights management companies developing solutions -only temporary improvements: technology keeps changing New Business Model -because approaches to addressing piracy are limited, industries rethinking marketing strategies -Music -buy one song instead of album -purchases through iTunes Music Store and other internet stores -closing of more than 600 brick and mortar music stores CONCLUSION -industry groups working hard to combat piracy -some success, but still growing problem -fuzzy line between what is and is not piracy -no clear deﬁnition of a creative unit -issue will grow as conﬂict deepens between old idea of copyright and newer idea of copyleft
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