PSYC 202 Lifespan Development (wk11) and Adolescence
PSYC 202 Lifespan Development (wk11) and Adolescence PSYC 202
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casslyn on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 202 at University of St. Thomas taught by Dr. Tonia S. Bock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of St. Thomas.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
PSYC WK 11 Research Chapter 19: Parent-Teen Relationships Scarr’s Good Enough Parents: adequate amount of warm, sensitive, involvement, strictness. Her theory was that within this group, there would be small individual variance in their children. Variance would come from overstimulation or neglect. Not to say parents don’t matter, they do. Peers influence the day-to-day activities while parents influence long-term goal setting Surveys need to be representable, reliable, valid, and of good sample size. With a small sample size, there’s less representation and variation. Too large of a size interferes with statistical significance and correlation. Authoritarian, Authoritative, Neglectful (aka uninvolved), Indulgent (aka permissive) were the four typology categories. Causal relationships could emerge from: SES, bidirectional nature, parental involvement affecting child, or child temperament altering parenting style. Participants were from 9 schools in Wisconsin and Northern California. They used a tertile from the top and bottom to look at typology extremes (purest form) Independent variable was parenting style. Experiment was both correlational and longitudinal. Four outcomes measured: 1. Problem behavior 2. Psychosocial development 3. Internalized distress 4. Academic competence. Results: authoritative parents had the most extreme results from neglectful parents. Indulgent and neglectful parent groups had more drug and alcohol use in child because of lack of parental supervision. Authoritarian parenting was strict without warmth, kids were higher in psychological and somatic symptoms. Remember cultural context: parents love their children across all cultures, but each cultures has a different value and way to display this. Self Understanding Self Concept o Is complex and abstract (I’m tolerant, I’m respectful) o Differentiated: understands behavior could be inconsistent across situational change. o Early adolescence, in 5/6/7 grade: imaginary audience emerges, giving birth to a super self-conscious nature. super distorted variation from high-low. “I’m cool” to “I’m a nerd” and the crazy emotions with those statements can shift over like five minutes. o Middle adolescence, mostly 9 grade “which is real me?” Struggles with confusion over inconsistent “opposing attributes” across situations. Highest confusion in mid. o Late adolescence, mostly 11 grade understands inconsistent behavior, accepts, and integrates to become a coherent view of self example: “I have a fairly quick temper” Self Esteem o Judging one’s overall worth. Takes a sharp decline, pretty linear from age 9 to age 22. o Baseline Self Esteem is deep down and pretty stable. If child self esteem is high it doesn’t change, if low it doesn’t change, otherwise could yoyo or dip. o Barometric Self Esteem situational shifts. Dramatic highs and lows in early adolescence because self conscious emerges. o Three new dimensions are added to the chart (from middle childhood) 1. Worth in close friends 2. Job competence 3. Romantic relations (ones before were academic, social, sports, physical appearance) Identity Erikson was the first to say that development happens beyond adolescence. However, his theory is not so applicable to the younger stages. WE DO use his adolescent stage and we named it “identity versus role confusion” with the developmental task of identity achievement. Identity is pretty broad. It’s the coherent sense of self past, present, and future experience being integrated to a role in society, a sense of individuality, as well as commitment to ideals. A resolved “crisis” forms an identity. If left unresolved, one becomes shallow, unprepared for adulthood, directionless James Marsha and the ID Status showed two important parts to identity development: exploration/reflection(crisis) and commitment. There are four types of statuses: o Identity foreclosure is when one commits without exploring. Usually happens when a parent or religious leader simply imposes plans on child. Child does not internalize or own it. o Moratorium is when someone explores without commitment. This is still good. o Identity achievement is when someone has committed to an identity after going through the exploration stage o Identity diffusion is also role confusion; it happens when someone hasn’t even tried committing or exploring positions on different topics. Identity emerges in adolescence. Most work it out between 18-24 during emerging adulthood. Erikson had thought it would be worked out between 13-18. Just because you resolve your identity once doesn’t mean that you’ll never visit development again. Moral Development Moral Behavior o Moral is philosophically defined (we use Kantian at UST) and behavior is described using the definition of moral. 2 o Rest’s 4 Component Model shows four different psychological processes for observing moral behavior. Unless all four are shown, moral behavior would be unachieved. 1. Moral sensitivity assesses, notices, takes POV per situation 2. Moral judgment determines what should be done. Traditionally, how people reason through a moral dilemma 3. Moral motivation prioritizes and takes action on problems and values. moral identity: moral values are core 4. Moral implementation skills to carry out an action (leadership, affluent, confidence, etc) o The classic moral dilemma and Kholberg only looked for the reason behind yes or no, not the yes/no answer itself. Found that there are anti-stealing reasons for stages five and six, but never found a stage six response in all of his research either via questionnaires or interviews. o Kholberg’s Stages merged kant and piaget into a single theory, six stages and three levels. 1. Level One: Preconventional (egocentric theme) Stage one: punishment avoidance and need to obey Stage two: instrumental purpose (self centered around one POV) 2. Level two: Conventional stage three: “good boy good girl” has good motives and morality of interpersonal cooperation is important stage four: social order maintenance, pov expands and includes sense of duty. Focuses on what law is: “what if everyone like Hank stole?” 3. Level three: Postconventional (global pov) stage five: social contract, living implicates conduction laws for societal protection and to serve rights. stage six: universal ethical principle: challenges pov taking. Generates ethical principles that maintain consistency across all cultures. Moral reasoning development trends show that stage 2 is ending at the beginning of adolescence. Stage three then emerges and rapidly rises and falls until stage four rises above and takes average towards the end of adolescence. Stage six is pretty rare and common in super virtuous people like Ghandi, Mother Theres, Dahli Llama, the Pope, etc. Influences on Moral Behavior o Parenting practices. To be better, listen and ask more questions. Present own reasoning one stage above child’s level, as part of vygotsky’s zone of proximal development theory o Peer interactions. Discussion with close friends in a healthy debate environment facilitates stance and influences positive development. 3 o Education system is the most powerful. The more years of educational experience and requirement, the higher the stages of moral reasoning scores go. Peer Relations Cliques o Are a small group of friends, usually 3 to 7, that are extremely tight-knit. o Especially important for girls’ development of emotional infancy, less important to boys. o Early adolescence: four to eight members of the same sex. Much uniformity (same race, same neighborhood, etc) o Middle adolescence: boys and girls mingle at beginning (at the same events but don’t mix) and at the end begin group dating. o Late adolescence: don’t gather as much, couple oriented, more fluid. Crowds o Are large groups based on reputation and symbolical representation. Jocks, nerds, populars, partiers, are good examples. o Vary based on peer involvement and adult institutional involvement. For example, Jocks are high in both, nerds are high in institutional and low in peer, and partiers are low in institutional and high in peer. o 40-50% only associate with one crowd. 1/3 associate with 2 crowds. 20-30% associate with many different crowds. o Good source of identity exploration o Characteristics of crowds: 1. Caricatures means that they overstate good of own, minimize negative qualities of own, but maximize bad qualities in others. 2. Channels determines who you can associate with 3. Contexts different crowds encourage different types of interaction 4