CDAE 002: WEEK 12
CDAE 002: WEEK 12 CDAE 002
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Popular in Human Development
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly Skrable on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development Week 12 Agriculture & The Green Revolution (Era 5: 1960s-Now…) Overview of Definitions - Open pollination: Pollination occurring by insect, bird, wind, human, or other natural mechanisms - Heirloom variety: History of being passed down within a family or community - Hybrid: Controlled method of pollination (pollen of two different varieties crossed by human intervention) o Not to be confused with GMOs o GMOs: plant or animal that has been genetically modified through the addition of genetic material through molecular techniques Green Revolution and the Rise in Chemical Based Agriculture - Pesticides: Any substance intended for preventing, destroying, etc., pests o Herbicides o Insecticides o Fungicides - Influence of WWI and WWII o War chemicals à Agrochemicals o Many businesses made money off of making War chemicals § Defoliant • Agent Orange used in Vietnam to be easier to see enemies § DDT: sprayed soldiers exposed to malaria o Vietnam § Agent Orange § 19 million gallons of insecticide sprayed § 3-6% of Vietnamese children are born with birth defects - Roundup o 41% glyphosate (what kills the plant) ‘active ingredient’ o 59% other products ‘inactive ingredients’ § Surfactacants: improves contact § Antidrift Agents: improves application accuracy § Color, odor, or emetics: improves human safety § Antifreeze or other stabilizers o Glyphosate is the only one tested, inactive ingredients not - Post WWI o Gap between rich and poor countries grew o Green Revolution vs. Red Revolution (Cold War) The Green Revolution - Norman Borlaug - Instituted Wheat-Breeding programs in less developed countries (Mexico) o Goals to improve agriculture, improve starvation - Classical hybrid pollination, not GMOs o Done by human intervention GMOs - Characteristics of Genetically Modified Crops o High-yielding varieties o Complementary o Intensification of production o Need for extension o Short season, multi cropping - Benefits o Increases yield o Possible increase in farmer nutrition o Reduced consumer food prices o Increased food security o Increased exports - Costs o Uncertainty o Crop limitations § Pests § Drought § Storage o Labor effects § Displacement of farmers • Especially women farmers because Genetic Engineering aimed at men’s crops - Concentration and Consolidation in Agriculture o Fewer individuals or organizations controlling increasing shares in the market (a couple companies own everything) o Problem with Farmers § Capital only penetrates certain parts of agriculture • Inputs, markets, distribution, NOT labor - Genetic Engineering o Uses: § Medical- medicines, vaccines § Entertainment- pets § Industrial- enzyme production § Energy § Food and food production o Why? § “Feed the world” § “Increases yields” § “Reduces pesticide use” o EXAMPLES § Golden Rice • Enhanced production of beta-carotene as a mechanism for addressing vitamin A deficiency (which is essential for growth and development) § Sweet Potato • Made the GMO form so it would be more resistant to viruses, but the hybrid version is actually more resistant § Fish (Salmon and Tilapia) o GE Crops and Weeds § Profit driven solutions for a human necessity (food production) § Weed management is a food systems problem • Currently we leave it to private companies to develop solutions to the weed problem • GE crops with herbicide tolerance developed and marketed by chemistry companies with inadequate value of risk o VERY dangerous - Agricultural Issues o GMOs increase the use of fertilizer § Gulf of Mexico • Runoff from Midwest farmers goes to the Gulf • Creates dead land • “Hypoxia” § Nitrate pollution • Des Moines, Iowa o So much pollution, had to create a Nitrate Removal Facility o Pollution created Blue Baby Syndrome
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