APY 201 feb 16-20 notes
APY 201 feb 16-20 notes 201
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eden Mekonnen on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 201 at a university taught by William Pestle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 98 views.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
21615 Social Organization Age Gender Kin Clan Craft specialization Class With the entire social political and economic dimensions thereof The Neolithic Revolution People started out as food foragers and then switched to food producing Food production was a necessary condition Was the switch from food foragers to food producing progress the worst mistake in history of human race or an inevitable step in the evolution of human society There are very few food foragers existing today most are food producing Daily intake is derived from domesticated sources even if every individual does not grow his her own food Food foragers primarily depend on hunting fishing and gathering Food producing societies depend most heavily on horticulture agriculture or pastoralism Food foragers can have small groups large birth spacing interval Food producing societies have very large groups short birth spacing Food foragers are typically nomadic but not always Food producers are sedentary Primary vector of social organization in food forager society is kinship and foodproducing societies are more based on class Food foragers limited little surplus property Division of labor is based on gender and proficiency Food producers Pervasive surplus of property Division of labor is based on class and specialization Means of exchange Food foragers practiced reciprocity and food producers had redistribution or market economy Political organization Food foragers equalitarianism Food producers hierarchy Equalitarianism Not the same as equality Positions of power exist but ephemeral Intra societal hierarchies present 21815 Chimps have dominance hierarchies Humans have entrenched hierarchy to a higher degree than any of the nonhuman ancestors Why have some societies evolved while others have not Unilineal evolution 19th century social theory about evolution of societies and cultures Some did not believe in this Instead some suggested instead to practice historical particularism This suggests that each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past The NeoEvolutionists Leslie White Iulian Steward Elman Service Milton Fried 22015 Chiefdom Service 1962 500020000 Kinship based ranking Large scale monument construction Redistribution Craft specialization Stratified Friend 1967 Bona fide social classes Ruling class segregated from working class Separated in activity Kin bonds subsumed by class structure Market economy Authority with power Access to both critical and prestige resources State 20000 with high population density Class based hierarchy Leader constitutes and maintains laws and army Centralized bureaucracy oversees economy An artifact of centralized control was giving one bowl of rice to workers Stratified settlement hierarchy Public buildings Problems with typologies Overgeneralize disguise variability Falsely equate ancient and modern societies of the same type For instance the Kung of South Africa do not represent the same way ancient societies lived They are in uenced by the modern political and social world Create unrealistic list of archaeological criteria 00000 00039 If you find one criteria assume all the rest Still harbor implicit notions of progress Typologies don t answer why There is so much left unexplained how things changed The problematic appeal of monoocausal explanations There is no simple cause explaining a phenomenon For instance the reason behind agriculture cannot be monocausal it occurred at different times and under different conditions So did chiefdoms Push vs Pull explanations Human societies were pushed towards agriculture and social hierarchy due to external factors of the human condition or human societies were pulled by something in the human condition within human control Push me People were pushed into agriculture and or nominating a leader because of Population pressure Climate pressure Resource scarcity circumscription Warfare Public projects irrigation Pull me a greed based model Someone wants to be powerful and makes it so Aggrandizers they aspire to greatness Opportunistic religious figures Gift givers An unhappy middle ground A series of small initially positive steps Towards farming towards inequality or both which brought with them unforeseen consequences Some of the steps probably provided positive feedback to the phenomena they were intended to remedy To this situation we add the aggrandizing aspects of human nature
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