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CRJU 304

by: Keisha Notetaker
Keisha Notetaker
Long Beach State
GPA 3.5

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Notes week of April 19th
Criminal Theory
Dr. Meeks
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keisha Notetaker on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Criminal Justice 304 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Meeks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Criminal Theory in Criminal Justice at California State University Long Beach.

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Date Created: 04/21/16
Lecture April 19 th Chapter 14 Technology and Crime Policy Issues - Personal freedoms in the Information Age must be addressed by society - The development of technology and telecommunication capabilities had led to concerns about privacy, free speech, and personal freedoms, in the 21 century - The U.S. Constitution obviously does not address electronic documents and advanced forms of communications facilitated by technologies that did not exist when it was created - Two major areas if the constitution pose concern for citizens: - First Amendment o Freedom of speech o Are electronic communications protected? - Fourth Amendment o Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures o Does this include electronic information? The Role of Technology The Advance of Technology - Technology, which facilitates new forms of criminal behavior, can be used both by criminals and law enforcement - And with the increasing value of information, high-tech criminals have taken to obtaining illegitimate access to computerized information - President Obama identified cybersecurity as one of the most serious economic and national security challenges facing the U.S. - This resulted in the President appointing a White House Cybersecurity Coordinator in 2009, responsible for coordinating cybersecurity activities across the federal government - The FBI has identified five primary forms of cybercrime: o Internal cybercrimes, such as viruses o Internet and telecommunications crimes, include hacking o Support of criminal enterprises, such as databases supporting drug distribution o Computer-manipulation crimes, such as illegal Financial Market related activity o Hardware, software, and information theft - A 2014 report by the Center for Strategic and International Studies estimate the annual global cost of cybercrime to be $375 billion to $575 billion annually and in 2013, $24-$120 billion in the U.S. - The Norton Report 2013, estimates U.S. consumers lost $38 billion to cybercrime activities, (i.e., viruses, spyware, and other forms of malware) - In May 2000, the FBI Interne Complaint Center (IC3) initiated operations as a center to receive and process complaints of Internet crime - In 2014, IC3 received 269,422 complaints, an average of 22,000 a month, with a verifiable dollar loss exceeding $800 million - In May 2014, the IC3 received its 3 millionth consumers’ complaint Frequently Reported Internet Crimes 2014 - Auto Fraud – 16,861 - Government Impersonation Email Scam – 8,713 - Intimidation/Extortion Scam – 7,923 - Real Estate Fraud – 9.955 - Confidence Fraud/Romance Scam – 5,883 Auto Fraud - In fraudulent vehicle sales, criminals attempt to sell vehicles they do not own - An attractive deal is created by advertising vehicles for sale on various online platforms at prices below market value - Total reported loss was $56.2 million Government Impersonation Email Scam - Scammers often pose as government or law enforcement officials making it easier to convince unsuspecting victims to give their personal information in order to defraud consumer o Note, government agencies do not send unsolicited e-mails - Victims reported losing more than $23,200 in total to this scam every day - Total reported loss was $11.3 million Intimidation/Extortion Scam - Demands for money or property through undue exercise of authority, including threats of physical harm, criminal prosecution, or public exposure - Payday loans, also known as cash advance loans or deferred-deposit check loans, short term loans with a high interest rate, are among the most abundant type of extortion scams reports - Total reported loss was $16.3 million Real Estate Fraud - Criminals exploit legitimate online ads listing homes for sale or rent, and repost the ads in an effort to redirect traffic to the subjects - Rental Scams – “Craigslist” - Timeshare Marketing Scams - Loan Modification Scams - Total reported loss was $19.8 million Confidence Fraud/Romance Scam - Schemes involve scammers pretending to seek companionship or romance online. The promise of love and romance to entice and manipulate online victims - A perpetrator scouts the Internet for victims, often finding them in chat rooms, on dating sites and even within social media networks - Total reported loss was $86.7 million The Advance of Technology - Even with the huge financial cost/loss, any effective policy for dealing with computer criminals must recognize various issues associated with personal freedoms and individual rights and must address the issues of deterrence o Technology use to deter crime vs. technology use to create new markets?? Law and Technology Computer Crime and the Law - The Communications Decency Act (CDA) was passed in 1996 and focused on protecting minors from harmful material on the Internet by making it a crime to knowingly transmit obscene or indecent material to a recipient under the age of 18 - How do we and who does define what s harmful, obscene, and/or indecent, today? - The ACLU filed suit against the federal government, challenging the constitutionality of the CDA’s provisions relation to the transmission of obscene material to minors - In 1996, a federal district court ruled that the provisions violated First Amendment guarantees of free speech - The case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, in the 1997 case of Reno v. ACLU, and the Court upheld the lower court’s ruling - The issue now becomes how do we balance personal rights vs. free enterprise in a capitalistic system? The Fingerprint of White-Collar Hood Rats Computer Crime as White-Collar Crime - According to Don B. Parker, computer criminals and white-collar criminals share several behavior-related characteristics: o Both are generally committed through nonviolent means, although some may have life-threatening consequences o Both can be committed by an individual, several people working in collusion, and/or organizations - Both generally involved information manipulations that create profits or losses - Both are hard to detect and are often discovered accidentally or by customer complaint - The general public sees many of these acts as less serious than crimes involving physical violence or crimes committed by socially disadvantaged and ow-income individuals - Both cost individuals’ organizations, and society large amounts of money and other resources - In 2013, a Ponemon Institute Report indicated U.S. companies lost more than $155.3 billion as a result of 28,765 data breaches, with the average breach costing $5.4 million - In 2015, Ponemon reported U.S. companies lost more than $188.4 billion as a result of 28,070 data breached, with the average breach costing $6.5 million Identity Theft Tech Crime – Identity Theft - Identity theft: o The misuse of another individual’s personal information to commit fraud - Direct costs of identity theft o Losses that result when identity thieves misuse existing accounts or fraudulently open new ones - Indirect costs o Businesses pay for fraud prevention and harm mitigation o Individual victims may have to pay costs involved in civil litigation and must overcome obstacles in obtaining or retaining credit - Consumer fear of victimization can also harm the digital economy, as well as the national economy, if they stop spending - BJS listed characteristics of identity theft include: o Unauthorized use or attempted use of existing credit cards o Unauthorized use or attempted use of other existing accounts o Misuse of personal information to obtain new accounts or loans, or to commit other crimes o Identity Theft cost U.S. consumers $24 billion in 2012 and $15.4 billion in 2014 DNA DNA Technology - DNA profiling o The use of biological residue found at a crime scene for genetic comparisons aiding in the identification of criminal suspects o DNA databases are becoming similar in purpose to fingerprint databases - DNA concerns: o Is this a highly reliable forensic tool that is not infallible? o Several states and the federal government are building digitized forensic DNA databases  FBI’s National DNA Index System allows public forensic labs across the U.S. to exchange and compare DNA profiles electronically o Genetic profiling  The use of biotechnology to identify the unique characteristics of an individual’s DNA Technology Use and Crime Technology in the Fight Against Crime - Technology is a double-edged sword o It provides criminals new weapons to commit crimes o It provides the criminal justice system with new tools to fight crime - Society must determine whether technology use is actually useful in preventing criminality or an evasive encroachment on personal freedoms - But, more importantly, society must determine how to address the new markets for crime participation created by the onset of technology - Wil special interest in these markets prevent serious discussion on the use of technology in crime fighting?


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