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Date Created: 02/22/15
Melanie Brooks CPR116 CHAPTER 1 WHAT ARE PUBLIC RELATIONS What are Public Relations A strategic communication process that builds mutually bene cial relationships between organizations and their publics o It is about building relationships 0 Something that relates to a certain group or public a group of people that are unique to another 0 You always have to determine who yourpubic is before you speak of anything relate to your public 0 The challenge of PR 0 Biggest challenge l It is multifaceted A PR professional must have the following skills 0 Written and interpersonal communication writing and speaking skills 0 Research you want to know the answer before the question is asked NeganUon Creativity Logistics you want to be able to plan events Facilitation Problem solving plan the problem before it happens and solve it o Intuition a good gut feeling rely on good intuition o A global industry 0 Global expenses on PR 0 An estimated 3 million practitioners 0 An explosion of growth in China and other nations 0 A proliferation of university courses 0 A PR specialist cannot become emotionally involved in issuesthey must see it from a subjective point of view 0 The following key words frame most PR de nitions Deliberate Planned Performance Pubic interest Twoway communication 0 Management function 0 Public relations is an umbrella term Fortune 500 companies use corporate communications while other companies just use communications Nonpro ts use public information public affairs community relations or marketing communications Stereotypes of communications and less attering terms 00000 00000 Melanie Brooks OOOOOO CPR116 Glamour Propaganda Manipulation quotPR stuntquot Spin framing turn something negative into a positive Flack Pubic Relations Process RACE 0 O O 0 Research Action Communication Evaluation Public Relations vs Journalism 0 O O 0 Scope public relations has many components journalism has only two journalistic writing and media relations Objectives journalists are objective observers public relations personnel are advocates Audiences journalists focus on a mass audience public relations professionals focus on de ned segments Channels journalists often use only one channel public relations practitioners use a variety of channels Public relations vs advertising 0 O O O 0 Public relation earned media through publicity Advertising paid media through bought space or time quotpay for playquot Advertising addresses only external audiences public relations targets external and internal audiences external audience is anyone outside of the company and internal audience is any employee in the company Advertising is a specialized communications function public relations is broader in scope Advertising sells organizations goods and services public relations creates positive environments around organizations Public relations vs marketing 0 O O 0 Objectives sell goods and services packaging Audience consumers and customers Competition vs opposition Role in management is PR focus trustcredibility How public relations supports marketing 0 0 Public relations is the 5th 39P in marketing strategies after Product Price Place and promotion There are 8 ways PR supports marketing Develops new prospects Provides thirdparty endorsements advocate Generates sales leads Creates environment for new productservice Melanie Brooks CPR116 Stretches dollars Provides inexpensive saes literature Establishes credibility Helps se minor products Toward an integrated perspective 0 An organizations goals and objectives are best accomplished through the integrated approach 0 Integration is the use a variety of strategies and tactics to convey a consistent message in a variety of forms 0 Terms used to explain integration Integrated marketing communications Convergent communications Integrated communications 0 A career in public relations 0 Introduction to public relations Public relations research measurement and evaluation Public relations writing and production Supervised work experience in public relations internship An additional PR course in law and ethics planning and management and case studies or campaigns 0 Essential skills 0 Writing Research Planning Problemsolving Business and economics 0 Expertise in social media 0 Salaries depend on 0 Level of experience Level of education Job title Religionlocation Industry type Gender inequalities You make the least money working as a PR agent for a nonpro t The difference between working as a corporate PR or a PR agency is that in an agency you could be in charge of different accounts but if you re a corporate PR you are 100 dedicated to that corporation 0 There is no way of getting a PR job without going to college you have to go for a few years 0000 0000 00000 Melanie Brooks CPR116 CHAPTER 2 THE EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS 0 Early beginnings O O O O The Rosetta Stone was basically the rst publicity release Olympic games used promotional techniques to promote athletes as heroes Julius Caesar used parades writings posted on walls and a book Commentaries to promote his activities Saint Paul the New Testament author quali es for the public relations hall of fame The middle ages 0 O The Roman Catholic Church was a major practitioner of public relations Bankers in Venice practiced the art of investor relations to adopt corporate philanthropy o Colonial America 0 O O 0 Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to convince settlers to move to Virginia Harvard College published its rst fundraising brochure King s College Colombia University sends news release for its commencement exercises About 150 years between each 0 The 18005 The Golden Age of Press Agentry O O O Begins with Sam Adams and the sons of Liberty in the late 1700s Davy crocket was a frontier hero created to draw political support away form Andrew Jackson Phineas T Barnum was a showman and a master of the pseudoevent Melanie Brooks CPR116 Pseudoevent creating events that aren t real events media event ex Macys day parade basically picked a day made a huge event on Thanksgiving but its basically to get people to shop at Macys no point to have the event He exaggerated things colorful words was very over thetop 0 Promoting the westward movement 0 Politics and social movements take the stage 0 Early corporate initiatives 0 19001950 The Age of Pioneers o vy Lee The rst PR counsel Opened Parker and Lee in 1905 Declaration of principles dissemination of truthful accurate information One of the rst clients Pennsylvania Railroad 19131914 railroad freight hike campaign public information model Best known for work with the Rockefeller family 0 Edward L Bernays Father of Modern PR 0 quotScienti c persuasionquot Emphasized advocacy and persuasion Believed in social scienti c research Crystalzed Public Opinion Class campaigns Ivory soap quotTorches of Libertyquot Lights Golden Jubilee Major Contributions by Industrialists Presidents 0 Henry Ford Positioning Publicist 0 Samuel nsu Started quotbi stufferquot 0 Teddy Roosevelt Press relations 19502000Pubic Relations comes of age the following factors attributed to the expansion of public relations during this period 0 Economy Major increases in urban and suburban populations The growth of big business big labor and big government Scienti c and technological advances The communications revolution 0 O O O 0000 Melanie Brooks CPR116 0 Financial considerations CHAPTER 3 ETHICS AND PROFESSIONALISM O 0000 0000 Core Conduct of Public Relations Timeliness Formal writing Professionalism approaching people Attire Privacyfreedom of information don t release clients information Client loyalty lntegrity Act in best interest of clients Unbiased PRSA Member Code of Ethics 0 To conduct myself professionally with truth accuracy fairness and responsibility to the public public and clients How PR and Media Ethically Fail 0 You can deceive without lying Omission leaving important things out Selection of sources support one view Story Selection pattern of stories that support an agenda while ignoring opposite view Placement headlines or bury the counter position Labeling extreme labels c Omission L groups unlabeled or omitted Mild label Spin one interpretation of event or policy to the exclusion of the other PRReported Subjective comments about objective facts 0 Understanding ethics and values 0 Ethics standards of conduct how we should behave based on right and wrong 0 Values central beliefs that determine how we will behave in a given situation Noble lie good in PR because you don t want to hurt someone s feeHngs o The PR Burden 0 Making ethical decisions that consider The public interest Melanie Brooks CPR116 The employers selfinterests The standards of the public relations profession Their personal values 0 Consider your threshold of discomfort o Exaggerating a products qualities 0 Defending a company s poor environmental record 0 Speaking on behalf of tobaccoliquor industry 0 Organizing quotfront groupsquot 0 The ethical advocate 0 Can a person be ethical and an advocate Considered biased and manipulative by some 0 Expected by public to be advocate The public knows PR is persuasive and can evaluate messages within context 0 Large PR Organizations 0 Public Relations Society of America PRSA 0 Public Relations Student Society of America PRSSA o The International Association of Business Communicators IABC Professional codes of conduct 0 Numerous codes with common themes Honesty Accuracy Fairness 0 Most codes considered toothless Expelled from organization is punishment 0 Can till practice PR 0 Codes for speci c situations 0 Internet transparency 0 Video news releases 0 Financial information 0 Corporate practice 0 Changing Practitioner 0 Individual must act like professional Sense of independence Sense of responsibility Concern for the profession Loyalty to professional standards over client Melanie Brooks CPR116 Expanding Body of Knowledge 0 Academic journals Journal of Public Relations Research Public relations review 0 Trade Publications PRWeek Adweek 0 Major centers of research Institute for Public Relations Strategic public relations center at USC Professional Accreditation o The IABC Model Written and oral exams Portfolio of work samples 0 The PRSA Model Preview course and readiness questionnaire Portfolio of work Written exam 0 Required continuing education Ethical Dealings with the News Media 0 Honesty doesn t mean answering every question asked 0 3 main areas of ethical concerns Gifts to journalists Linking ads with news coverage Transparency and disclosure issues 0 How much power or in uence do you have 0 Advisory no power at all 0 Compulsory advisory Collaborate with your boss you re listened to o Concurring authority You have all power CEO tells you quotdo what you have to do I trust youquot 0 Global Reach 0 Most major public relations rms generate substantial revenues from international clients 0 International work isn t only for large rms Small and medium size rms around the world have formed working partnerships with each other to serve client needs Melanie Brooks CPR116 Firms for af liations and cooperate with each other to service clients with international need 0 The Rise of Communication Conglomerates o 60 of global business in public relations is conducted by rms owned by holding companies 0 4 major holding companies WPP Group largest PR rm in the world Omnicom Publicis Groupe Interpublic Group 0 How Public relations rms get business 0 Organizations will hire public relations rms Fore supplemental staf ng Help with special projects Speci c expertise Pros of using a PR Firm Objectivity Variety of skillsexpertise Extensive resources Of ces throughout the country Special problemsolving skills 0 Credibility Cons o Super cial grasp of clients unique problems may be objective down know internal issues Lack of full time commitment Need for prolonged brie ng period Resentment by internal staff Need for strong direction by top management Need for full information and con dence 0 Costs 0 Fees and Charges 0 A public relations rm charges for its services in several ways Basic hourly fee plus outof pocket expenses Retainer fee keep somebody no your books they ll pay x amount of to have you as a client an on going monthly fee and you can add to that out of pocket expengve Fixed project fee run an event for someone set up everything media and marketing etc and you ll pay us 20000 0 Role Chapter 14 0 Process Chapter 58 big part of nal project Gonna use these concepts for crisis O 0000 00000 Melanie Brooks 0 O O O CPR116 Research Program planning Communication Evaluation 0 The important of Research 0 0 Research provide the rst 4 essential steps for effective PR Provides the information required to Understand the needs of publics what are they looking for To develop powerful messages nd out what they desire and how are you gonna relay the message 0 Determining the research role and scope O 0000 O O 0 What is the problem What kind of information is needed How will the results of the research be used What speci c public or publics should be researched Should the organization do the research inhouse or hire an outside consultant How will the research data be analyzed reported or applied How soon will the results be needed How much will the research cost 0 Brand Identity it is a hexagon shape O 0000 0 Physical facet classic design elegance Personality serious Relationship credibility consideration trust Culture Rap Hiphop commitment passion Re ected customer pioneering cool trendy Consumer metallization driven by inner passion for music Beats vs Bose O O O The younger crowd likes Beats more because they are stylish and cool looking Bose had the effect to cut out sounds and Beats copied so they are now being sued Bose PR and design crew had to change almost their entire product in order to compete with beats Using research 0 00000000 To achieve credibility with management To de ne audiences and segment public To formulate strategy To test messages To help management keep in touch To prevent crisis To monitor the competition To sway public opinion To generate publicity Melanie Brooks CPR116 0 To measure success 0 A variety of research techniques 0 According got one survey of practitioners 75 of respondents described their research as casual and informal 0 Primary v secondary research Primary you yourself go out there and do the research Secondary using other peoples research like Google search 0 When public relations professionals analyze data collected by someone else 0 Common sources online databases or the World Wide Web 0 Qualitative v quantitative research Qualitative Soft data 0 Uses open ended questions 0 Exploratory in nature 0 Usually valid but not reliable Rarely projectable to larger audiences Focus groups indepth interviews 0 Uses nonrandom samples Quantitative Hard data Closeended questions Projected to larger audiences Survey or experiment Qualitative research techniques 0 Content analysis look at different searches there are 0 Interviews asking people questions 0 Focus groups the best way to do research but they are expensive about 1015 people in a room who share ideas and argue our their opinions 0 Copy testing when you publish a yer or booklet and leave out information or it just doesn t make sensepeope then tell you and you go back and test it o Ethnographic techniques opportunity to do observation Observe people who don t even know they re being observed Put out a sign see who reads it who doesn t etc 0 Quantitative Research 0 Often takes the form of polls and surveys conducted using precise scienti c sampling methods 0 Based on 2 major factors Random sampling try to be as random as possible when doing a survey time of day age gender etc Melanie Brooks CPR116 Sample size 0 10 accuracy test 100 people 0 250500 56 0 3 accuracy 10001500 responses 0 How to reach respondents o Mailed questionnaires send 1000 may only get 100 back 0 Telephone surveys quick response and feedback but not 0 Personal interviews 0 Omnibus or piggyback surveys use other surveys and drop your data in there 0 Web and email surveys most reliable quick and inexpengve Questionnaire construction 0 Carefully consider wording Avoid loaded questions Consider timing and context Avoid the politically correct answer Give a range of possible answers 0 Use scaled answers 0 Web analytics 0 Provide information about number of site visitors and page views 0 2 types Offsite Onsite Social Media monitoring tools 0 Typical objectives Increasing revenues Tracking and managing issues Developing context that tracks trends in thinking and fashion called memes Increasing awareness of the organizations mission Improving public opinion of a particular cause or organization OOOO CHAPTER 6 PROJECT PLANNING The value of planning 0 The second step in the public relations process is planning 0 The organization starts making plans to do something about an issue or situation 0 Public relations planning should be strategic o It sets the organizations direction proactively avoiding drift and routine repetition of activities Melanie Brooks CPR116 Strategic plan 0 Avision 0 Big ideas 0 Operational 0 Implementing the vision 0 Not the little details but implementing the strategy 0 Movements of your personnel 0 Advertising your project 0 When you actually start working at it 0 Tactical 0 Important details that can never be overlooked 0 PR Strategy 0 quotStrategy is a unique mixture 0 mental energy injected into an organization through communication which results in behavior that achieves organizational objectivesquot Mission statement 0 UM to educate and nurture students to create knowledge provide service to our community and beyond Core values ethics 0 UM freedom of inquiry academic freedom freedom to think to question to criticize and to dissent Strategic Planning 0 Mission why we exist Vision what we want to be Goals Measurable objectives Activates Measure 0 Outcomes Our vision Mission goals and core values Need to have internal and external goals 0 Internal business practicesinternal processes employee learning and growth 0 External customers stakeholders and partners program and service delivery Approaches to planning 0 2 main approaches Management by objectives MBO very strategic Agency planning model more operational and tactical 0 00 00 Melanie Brooks CPR116 0 Both approaches emphasize asking and answering questions to generate a global business 0 Managements by objective 0 Clientemployer objectives Audiencepublics Audience objectives Media channels Media channel objective Sources and questions Communication strategies Essence of the message Nonverbal support 00000000 0 Agency planning model 0 Facts Category facts Productservice issues I Competitive facts Customer facts 0 Goals Business objectives Role of public relations Sources of new business 0 Audience Target audience I Current mindset Desired mindset 0 Key message Main point 0 Elements of a program plan 0 Identi es what is to be done why and how to accomplish it The plan accounts for 8 basic elements Situation Objectives Audience Strategy Tactics Calendartime table Budget Evaluation OOOOOOOOO Measurement of production 0 Elementary for of evaluation 0 Counts the number 0 news releases feature stores Melanie Brooks CPR116 0 Measurement of supplemental activities 0 Communication audits All communication activity of an organization should be assessed audited at least once a year I Could include the following 0 Analysis of all communication activity 0 Informal interviews with rank and le employees middle management and top executives 0 Informal interviews with community leaders media gatekeepers consumers distributors and other in uential person in the industry Test 50 questions 14 basic roles of PR 58 Fourstep process 1 Which is the rst step in the PR process Research 2 Which of the four steps makes PR a cyclical process Evaluation 3 What is the relationship bw PR and Advertising Adv ls usually more costly 4 highest paid PR profession Corporate 5 Pays least None for pro t 6 Employees usually require what thing in order for a paid internship position Must be a junior 7 Edward Bernays coined the term spin false 8 what org is ivy lee best known for counseling Rockefeller 9 henry ford known for using what 2 concepts positioning and accessibility to press 10 most balanced two way symmetrical 11 who s the rst pres that made extensive use of rst Theodore Roosevelt 12 women constitute about 70 of practitioners true 13 fastest growing minority audience is African American audiences false Hispanics 14 which of following is not listed as a code of conduct of PRSA codedependency 15 receive APR designation and be accredited by even if bribrary is a tenyear or not to receive gift is considered bribary will use news releases if accompanied by a gift retainer fee is on call Melanie Brooks CPR116 when is research valid systematic anaylis and comm content analysis intercept will mostly happen where shopping mall whats a problem with web email surverys low response rate typical margin of error for sample size of 100 is 100 surverys 10 qaulititavie data is soft data gant chart calendar
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