New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Textbook Outline

by: Ray Allen

Textbook Outline PSY240

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY240 > Textbook Outline
Ray Allen
Abnormal Psychology

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Outlines for the Abnormal Psychology Book. Chapters 8-9. Mood Disorders and their treatments.
Abnormal Psychology
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Abnormal Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ray Allen on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY240 at University of Miami taught by Gudenkauf in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.


Reviews for Textbook Outline


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/22/15
Abnormal Psych Chapters 8 9 Chapter 8 Disorders of Mood Case Study Beatrice Intro Psycho Crying at smallest imperfe ctions Depression low sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming Mania opposite of depression breathless euphoria or at least frenzies energy in which people may have an exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking Two groups of mood disorders 0 Depressive suffer only from depression Unipolar depression depression without a history of mania I Normal when depression lifts o Bipolar experience periods of mania that alternate with periods of depression Many people suffer mood disorders Abe Lincoln Moses Queen Victoria Sylvia Plath Unipolar Depression The Depressive Disorders Depression is serious not just little bits of sadness Severe and long lasting psychological pain Lose will to carry out activities and even sometimes life How Common is Unipolar Depression 8 adults have severe depression America 19 sometime in life have severe depression Rate of depression is higher among poorer people than wealthier people Any age 40s most likely than any other age group Age onset is 26 but it keeps going down Women 2x more likely than men to experience episodes of unipolar depression 85 with unipolar depression recover What Are the Symptoms of Depression Emotional motivational behavioral cognitive physical Emotional sad dejected miserable empty humiliated lose humor little pleasure anhedonia inability to experience any pleasure at all anxiety anger agitation crying spells Motivational lose desire to pursue usual activities lack of drive initiative and spontaneity suicide Abnormal Psych Chapters 8 9 Behavioral less active and less productive alone stay in bed move and speak slow Cognitive negative views of themselves inadequate undesirable inferior maybe evil blame themselves for everything bad pessimism procrastinate hopeless and helpless bad memory on lab studies Physical headaches indigestion constipation dizzy spells pain bad sleep and eating habits less or more Diagnosing Unipolar Depression Major depressive episode two or more weeks of at least 5 symptoms of depression including sad moos and or loss of pleasure o Delusions and hallucinations in extreme cases See table 8 2 for DSM checklist Major depressive disorder a severe pattern of depression that is disabling and is not caused by such factors as drugs or a general medical condition Recurrent preceeded by previous episodes Seasonal changes with seasons Catatonic immobility or excessive activity Postpartum within four weeks of giving birth Melancholic almost totally unaffected by pleasurable events Manic later in time diagnosis changed to bipolar Chronic unipolar depression persistent depressive disorder Dysthymic disorder a mood disorder that is similar to but longer lasting and less diabling than a major depressive disorder Premenstrual dysphoric disorder women who repeatedly experience clinically significant depressive and related symptoms during the week before menstruation Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder persistent depressive symptoms and recurrent outbursts of severe temper child chi 7 What Causes Unipolar Depression Stressful events Depressed people report more stressful events than other psych disease Reactive exogenous depression follows clear cut stressful events Endogenous depression response to internal factors Clinicians focus on both situational and internal aspects Explanations of unipolar psychological biological and sociocultural factors The Biological View Genetic biochemical anatomical and immune system studies suggest it has biological causes Genetic Factors family pedigree twin adoption and molecular biology gene studies Inherent predisposition for unipolar depression Abnormal Psych Chapters 8 9 More likely for identical twins to have depression than fraternal Adopted parents had depression while the people who adopted didn t Depression linked to certain genes Low activity of norepinephrine and serotonin Discovery of first effective antidepressant drug raised norepinephrine and serotonin Norepinephrine a neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression and panic disorder Serotonin a neurotransmitter whose abnormal depression cod and eating disorders Brain circuits networks of brain structures that work together triggering each other into action and producing a particular kind of emotional reaction Prefrontal cortex hippocampus amygdala Brodmann area 25 Immune system White blood cells low activity is linked to Psychological Views Psychodynamic behavioral and cognitive models Cognitive most likely Psychodynamic View Freud and Abraham Clinical depression v grief Regress to oral stage total dependency lntrojection all their feelings for the loved on including sadness and anger toward themselves Become depressed Symbolic loss the loss of a valued object that is unconsciously interpreted as the loss of a loved one 0 Parents only love student when she gets A Object relations theorist Anaclitic depression a pattern of depressed behavior found among very young children that is caused by separation from one s mother Many unproven things for psychodynamic Behavioral View Changes in rewards and punishments people receive in their lives Decline in rewards leads to less motivation and constructive behavior Social rewards Correlational not causal Depression may cause the bad mood that causes the less rewards Cognitive Views Pessimistic views Abnormal Psych Chapters 8 9 Theory of negative thinking and the theory of learned helplessness Maladaptive attitudes a cognitive triad errors in thinking and automatic thoughts combine to produce unipolar depression Cognitive triad the three forms of negative thinking that Aaron Beck theorizes lead people to feel depressed The triad consists of a negative view of one s experiences self and the future Minimization and magnification Automatic thoughts steady train of unpleasant thoughts that keep suggesting to them that they are inadequate and that their situation is hopeless Ruminative responses dwell mentally on their mood without effort to change it Learned helplessness the perception based on past experiences that one has no control over one s reinforcements Seligman shuttle box for dogs Shocked gods and they d just take it Attribution helplessness theory when people view events as beyond their control they ask themselves why this is so Global specific internal external Sociocultural Views Family social perspective interpersonal factors in the development of depression Multicultural perspective ties depression to gender race and economic status Family social perspective Decline of rewards Separated or divorced 3x depression of married Lonely without intimacy are likely to become depressed Lack of social support and social rewards Multicultural Perspective Girls 2x as likely as guys to be depressed Women are younger it lasts longer and more frequently and respond less to treatment Hormone changes Women are more stressed life stress theory Body dissatisfaction Lack of control theory Rumination Depression is worldwide Western is more psychological while nonwestern is more physical Depression distributed unevenly within some minority groups Abnormal Psych Chapters 8 9 Bipolar Disorders What Are the Symptoms of mania Dramatic and inappropriate rises in mood Emotional motivational behavioral cognitive and physical Active powerful emotions in search of an outlet Emotional euphoric joy well being is out of proportion Some aren t so happy and are irritable angry etc Motivational constant excitement involvement and companionship seek friends and interests Behavior very active talk loud and rapidly flamboyance dangerous activities Cognitive poorjudgment and planning don t listen to others ego big Physical energetic get little sleep and are wide awake Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders Manic episode For a week they display an abnormally high or irritable mood increased activity or energy and at least three symptoms of mania Hypomanic episode less sever mania Bipolar l and Bipolar ll Bipolar l disorder full manic and major depressive episodes Bipolar ll disorder mildly manic hypomanic episodes and major depressive disorders Depression is longer Bipolar l more common than ll Equal for men and women Women have more depressive episodes and rapid cycling Poorer people more likely 15 44 onset age Cyclothymic disorder a disorder marked by numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and mild depressive symptoms What Causes Bipolar Disorders Low serotonin and high norepinephrine mania Low serotonin and low norepinephrine depression lon activity Activity within a neuron Brain structure lower volumes of grey matter in brain structural problems Genetic factors presipostion Family pedigree Abnormal Psych Chapters 8 9 Chapter 9 Treatments for Mood Disorders Case study quotes of famous people who sought treatment 0 Normal stable and productive life 0 Diverse therapies Many options Treatments for Unipolar Depression 0 Half seek treatment Psychological Approaches Cognitive behavioral and cognitive therapy have the best results Psychodynamic Therapy 0 Bring issues of dependency and loss to consciousness and work through them 0 Associate freely Interpretations of associations and dreams 0 Review past events and feelings Cope with loss more effectively become independent 0 Only occasionally helpful 0 Helps the most for issues rooted in childhood perfectionism emptiness 0 Short term psychodynamic is better than long term cause patient gets discouraged Behavioral Therapy 0 f reintroduce depressed clients to pleasurable events and activities 0 2 appropriately reinforce their depressive and nondepressive behaviors 3 help improve their social skills 0 Behavioral activation adding positive activities to a person s life 0 Behaviors are rewarded correctly 0 Contingency management only rewarding constructive statements and behavior and ignoring depressive ones 0 Social skill practice 0 When two or more behavioral techniques are combined it does reduce depressive symptoms Cognitive Therapy 0 Cognitive therapy a therapy developed by Aaron Beck that helps people identify and change the maladaptive assumptions and ways of thinking that help cause their psychological disorders 0 Have some behavioral therapy included as well 0 Four phases and fewer than 20 sessions 0 Phase 1 Increasing activities and elevating mood 0 Phase 2 Challenging automatic thoughts Abnormal Psych Chapters 8 9 Phase 3 Identifying Negative thinking and biases Phase 4 Changing Primary Attitudes Acceptance and commitment therapy recognize and accept their negative cognitions simply as streams of thinking that flow their minds Sociocultural Approaches Multicultural treatments Give psychodynamic or cognitive behavioral treatments while focusing on multicultural factors Medication needs for poor aren t adequately addressed Family Social Treatments Interpersonal psychotherapy and couple therapy Interpersonal psychotherapy a treatment for unipolar depression that is based on the belief that clarifying and changing one s interpersonal problems will help lead to recovery Four interpersonal problems must be addressed interpersonal loss interpersonal role dispute interpersonal role transition and interpersonal deficits 16 sessions IPT is successful in removing depressive symptoms Couple therapy the approach in which a therapist works with two people who share a long term relationship Communication and problem solving techniques Biological Approaches Electroconvulsive Therapy electrodes are attached to a patients head and send an electrical current throught the brain causing a convulsion Effective and fast treatment Volts in brain for half a second cause 25 sec a few minute seizure Done 6 1 2 times over 2 to 4 weeks Unilateral ECT Severe depression only Antidepressant Drugs Monoamine oxidase MAO inhibitors and tricyclics Second generation antidepressants MAO Inhibitors an antidepressant drug that prevents the action of the enzyme monoamine oxidase Deals with norepinephrine Raise norep Tricyclics an antidepressant drug that has three rings in its molecular structure Continuation therapy Abnormal Psych Chapters 8 9 0 Increase norep and serotonin immediately 0 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibtors SSRIS a group of second generation antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin activity specifically without affecting other neurotransmitters 0 As effective as tricyclics and harder to OD on Brain Stimulation Vagus nerve stimulation a treatment procedure for depression in which an implanted pulse generator sends regular electrical signals to a persons vagus nerve the nerve in turn stimulates the brain 0 Transcranial magnetic stimulation a treatment procedure for depression in which an electromagnetic coil which is placed on or above a person s head sends a current into the individuals brain 0 Daily for two four weeks 0 Deep brain stimulation a treatment procedure in which a pacemaker powers electrodes that have been implanted in Brodmann Area 25 thus stimulating that brain area Treatments for Bipolar Disorder 0 Lithium a metallic element that occurs in nature as a mineral salt and is an effective treatment for bipolar disorders 0 Mood stabilizing drugs psychotropic drugs that help stabilize the moods of people suffering from bipolar mood disorder antibipolar drugs Lithium and Other Mood Stabilizers 0 Need to give patients the perfect dose of lithium 0 Effective 0 Second messengers chemical changes within a neuron just after the neuron receives a neurotransmitter message and before it responds Adjunctive Psychotherapy Meds and family stuff


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.