Behaviorism Weekly Notes 2/15-2/22
Behaviorism Weekly Notes 2/15-2/22 PSY0160
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Leonard on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY0160 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Lausberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
0Behaviorism and Learning Approaches to Personality o Behaviorism People viewed as machinelike mechanisms I Determined by environment Explore how mechanisms learn how does change occur in reaction to environment I Determinism 0 An eventbehavior is caused determined by some prior event 0 Cause something able to be understood according to basic laws of science 0 ln opposition to belief of quotfree willquot Behavior must be explained in terms of Causal In uence of the Environment Insistence on controlled laboratory research Physical Laws 0 People are physical objects 0 Can be understood through scienti c analysis Thoughts and feelings 0 Viewed as behaviors that are caused by the environment Situa tional Speci city 0 Environment cause of behavior 0 Behavior expected to vary signi cantly in different environments 0 Normalhealthy behavior is a result of environment that supports typical behavior 0 Unhealthy behavior is a result of maladaptive environment Behaviorism s Science of Personality 0 Focus on observable behaviors o Manipulate environmental variables 0 Carefully controlled laboratory settings 0 Personality shaped by environment Research oSimple Systems Use of rats dogs cats birds Enough similarity to provide valuable information 0 Ethics won t allow manipulation of humans Generalizable Complexity poses challenges 0 Real life environments are far more complicated than controlled lab experiments 0 Practical and ethical issues oPavov18491936 ClassicalConditioning 0 Association learning o Stimulus associated with Response 0 Re exive processes 0Accidentally discovered conditioned responses while studying digestion in dogs 0Noticed eventual salivary re ex in dogs before being presented with food 0During Conditioning 0 Neutral Stimulus tonebell Unconditioned Stimulus food Unconditioned Response salivation 0After Conditioning 0 Conditioned Stimulus tonebell l Conditioned Response salivation 0Generalization o Generalize Stimulus react to similar stimuli that are not exactly what was conditioned 0Discrimination o Conditioned response only happens in reaction to particular stimulus o React to pitch of C but not quotDquot Extinction o Conditioned response will eventually die out if Unconditioned Stimulus is not paired with Conditioned Stimulus 0 Learning can quickly come back if trials are repeated 0Experimental Neuroses 0 Can develop anxiety if conditioning trials are too speci cdiscriminate oJohn Watson 18791958 oJones O Founder of Behaviorism Worked off of Pavlov s ndings quotLittle Albertquot 0 Conditioned baby to fear white furry animalsobjects Adultery scandal booted from academics moved to advertising from psychology quotFears are conditioned emotional responsesquot Unconditioning Fear 0 Extinction 0Direct Conditioning 0 Pleasant stimulus feared object change in response 0 Generalization of Unconditioning Eric Kandle 2000 Noble Prize in Medicine for Classical Conditioning 0 What happens in the brain when an organism acquires a new response to a stimulus o Alypsia sea slug with few nerve cells 0 Findings conditioning process at the neural level involves changes in the strength of connections among neurons as a result of conditioning BF Skinner 19041990 Radical Behaviorism o Behaviorism is only necessary theory no need for personality theories Born in Susquehanna PA English Literature Major 0Failed as a writer PhD in Psychology at Harvard 1931 Worked at University of Minnesota Indiana University Eventually returned to Harvard Books 0 Behavior of Organisms 1938 o Walden Two 1948 0 Science and Human Behavior 1953 0 Beyond Freedom and Dignity 1971 Operant Conditioning 0Deemphasized concepts involving psychological structures 0 Cannot be measured or observed 0 Behavior seen as adaptation to situational forces environment is everything 0 Observable behavior 0Key Structural Unit A Response 0 Can be Simple Complex 0Response represents an external observable piece of behavior that can be related to environmental events 0 Some responses elicited by known stimuli Other responses are Operants 0 Responses that can t be associated with any stimuli o Emitted by the organism oVountary responses Learning association of responses to environmental events oABC Model Antecedent Behavior Consequence o Reinforcer o Follows a response and increase probability response will occur again in the future 0 Goal strengthen response 0 What counts as a reinforcer depends on the personanimal being reinforced Must be found pleasurable Positive Reinforcement Adding something pleasurable to reinforce behavior 0Reward child with candy when they do something good Negative Reinforcement Take something aversive away to reinforce behavior 0 Car stops beeping when your put your seat belt on O O Punishment 0 Follows a response and decreases probability response will occur again in the future 0 Goal Weaken response 0 Positive Punishment Add something aversive like a smack on the hand to decrease behavior Negative Punishment Take away something pleasurable to decrease behavior 0Take away privileges put child in timeout when they do something bad May be a short term solution but not as effective at changing behavior as Reinforcement Must be applied immediately after behavior to create link between punishment and action Skinner Box oBox with light lever food and water dispenser and electric grid on oor Skinner quotBaby Tenderquot oRaised own daughter for two years inside box Goal of Reinforcement is to strengthenincrease a behavior Goal of Punishment is to weakendecrease a behavior 0 O 0 Continuous vs Partial Reinforcement o Fixed lnterval reinforced after a certain amount of time despite responses 0 When quizzes are schedules at xed intervals students study only when the quiz is to be administered 0 Least effective 0Fixed Ratio always reinforced after a certain number of responses oYou are paid each time you complete a chore 0 0Variable Interval reinforced after a random amount of time despite responses oYou listen to the radio to hear your favorite song but do not know when you will hear it 0 Slow and steady response rate 0Variable Ratio always reinforced but after a random number of responses oA slot machine pays off on average every few pulls but you never know which pull will pay Most resistant to extinction I Hard to quit gambling shing etc 0 Free Will o If the environment is the cause of our action then we ourselves cannot be the cause of our behavior 0 If we ourselves are not the cause of our behavior then we do not truly have freedom to act 0 quotFree will is an illusionquot Shaping Successive Approximations o Gradual stepbystep process 0 Reinforce increasingly complex behaviors Achieve nal behavior desired Growth and Development 0 As children develop they learn more and more responses as a result of naturallyoccurring reinforcements 0 Process no different than shaping in lab animals Causes of Behavioral DisordersPsychopathology 0 People never learned to behave properly improper response 0 Were taught improper behavior 0 Cannot control their behavior 0 quotWhatever the cause treatment must focus on learning correct behaviorsquot Classical Conditioning Techniques Systematic Desensitization Technique CounterConditioning o Primarily used in treating fears Undo conditioning that led to fear Progressive muscle relaxation Construct feat hierarchy Treat fear of dogs 0 Picture of cartoon dog Picture of real dog Picture of Person holding dog 0 0 Exposure Treatments 0 Direct exposure to feared stimulus immediately 0 Client endures anxiety which gradually dissipates o Behavioral Assessment Behavior Modi cation ldentify 0 Speci c behaviors target behaviors or responses 0 Environmental factors that elicit cue or reinforce the target behaviors 0 Environmental factors that can be manipulated to alter the behavior oABA Research Design A Measure behavior at one point in time B Introduce reinforcer and measure behavior again A Take away reinforcer and see if behavior returns to original level oBehaviorism Evaluation Positive Aspects 0 Database 0 Testable in lab settings Systematic Comprehensive Applications 0 Used in education animal training therapy etc Negative Aspects 0 Testable not very testable in real life
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