Selected Topics in Regional Cultures
Selected Topics in Regional Cultures
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Anthro 179 41414 1147 PM 4114 Check syllabi and buy books on Amazon India came into existence in 1849 South Asia extends from North in Afghanistan to South in Sri Lanka On the east you have Maldives 0 5 different language families in India there is caste concerns with pollution elaborate kinship systems witchcraft and so much more Classification of scholarly methods village studies interpretive and ethnosociology anti orientaIistdeconstructionistpostmodern historicist muti vocaIconstructionist Nipa has written 2 books on India Nipal says that India has no history he says it39s a victim of history 0 From days of earliest kingdoms kings preform rituals Change has come from the communities Hindu concepts Dharma moral order Karma conseuqences of moral and immoral actions Danda royal power Bhkati devotion Moksa release from the world of salvation Indian Religious Leaders Sankara Ramanuja Gandhi Western Concept Deconstructionism Orientalism Timeless fatalistic leaderless India Quizzes on the river systems and some of the major cities India is a hydraulic state It grew on the expansion of agriculture Map quiz BUY THESE BOOKS FROM AMAZON Markandaya Nectar in a Sieve we get there April 24 Murthy Samskara we get there may 8quot and 10 and ethnography by valentine Daniel called Fluid Signs Being a Person the Tamil Way may 17quot Office hours after class 351B Haines Hall 56 pm Tuesday Thursday 4314 Hinduism is a product of a variety of forces during 17 century around 2000 BC These forces were political as well as religious and Hinduism by 7 AD had required basic and social forms Chiefs and warlords placed religion in areas Ariyan contribution to Hinduism was centered on open air sacrifices fire sun moon etc Perusha was dissembled in a sacrifice broken down into the different castes Brahman priest Kshatryia kings Vaishya merchants Shudra servants in contrast to Ariyan religion we know almost nothing to preAryiyan religion kings were the upholders of Dharma and protectors of their subjects kings were now settled rulers of agricultural domains with responsibilities of solving different conflicts period 2500500 BC regional kings were forbidden from preforming the sacrificial rights only the great Buddhist king preformed that right changed it to Maha Dana great right the Buddhist king is a world conqueror and a renouncer only the conqueror could perform the ritual and only he had the right to preform them Gupta dynasty in 4 century as it grew in power it elevated the same rituals had elaborate temples for their rituals Initially Buddhism entered the south with a migration of north Indian merchants Focus on the rivers Cagra river etc 4814 Old conflict with rise of Buddhist kingdoms gets replicated centuries later in the south of India Main centres of political control lay in the valleys The temple became focus of the varied system of social gradation The word karai was used to denote a share in a clan landholding the heirs of corporate controllers were known as the kaniyatchikarna and controers Warfare took place mostly on the plains and seems Tamilnad export raw materials and manufactured goods mostly cloth to Arabia and southeast Asia Valleys based on settled rice agriculture The pains animal husbandry and warfare ThemesOrganizing Concepts 0 bands tribes states describes an evolutionary sequence A difference in social and political organization A band typically under 100 people Tribes hundreds of thousands of people States millions of people Bands are typically very egaitarian don39t have a lot of political structures Tribes in contrast are very large and usually broken up of clans And a clan is made of up lineage Lineage is made up of households Some tribes have a hierarchical status structure There might be a king at head of the tribe and his lineage within that clan has a higher status and his household has the highest status Everyone in a tribe is related some closer to each other and some further away People have expectations towards some relatives Thinking of terms of relatives and relating to social institutions is what happens with tribes With states sometimes the kinship ideum remains The kings seem as the father or their lands Typically a state unlike a tribe monopolizes the legitimate use of force tribes amp castes o In india we have all types of groups of people We have kammas reddis Maravars and thousands more as well They are belonging to castes but what39s the difference between a caste and a tribe 0 Theme of invading armies and merchants o The big difference between tribes and castes if they live all by themselves in an area hydraulic civilization amp ecological zones caste castes castesism o in some cases we talk about castes as varna and in other cases we talk about castes as jati These castes are separated from each other by rules of endogamy You can only marry within your caste in your jati or varna o Caste is an ideological category used to evaluate and understand relations between your group and another group of people 0 A separated economically independent caste that keep the different caste groups apart You can have vaishas marrying brahmans you need to marry another vaishna But people don39t always follow the rules 0 How do you classify the child of a brahman who marries a ksatriya It depends whether the male has a higher status than the female or vice versa If a male has a higher status and they marry against the rules of endogamy it is called marriage within the hair and this is called analoma marriage If the women has the higher status than the man that39s against the hair and is called pratiloma marrigage o In the analoma marriage the child has the status of the lower ranked woman By contrast if 2 people engage in a pratiloma then their child will be in a much lower status group than both of them Casteism the racialization of castes This is a hybrid social formation that evolves over time British get control of 2339s of india and over the course of the 19 century the british take control and development and efficient structure Indian undergoes a huge transformation in India we are looking at long term trends barbarians maleccas Perusha myth Head brahmans Arms Ksatriiyas Groin Vaisyas Sudras feet 0 If you are a king or merchant in the south Shannan 9 Nadar Words that end in signify more respect than endings in Q A nadar lord of a land Caste has many different forms In the end what really counts for status is power and money Varna and jati mean the same thing and what they mean is kind or category There are not just human varna and jati s there are also animal varna s and jati s 41014 Kinship as Politics 1 Reprise Political formations in economic perspective Reciprocity Redistribution market polony Very handy way of thinking about was developed by a sociologist He talked about ancient economies In egalitiarian societies people give gifts to each other If you give a gift to someone they are obligated to give you a gift back If he doesn39t he is telling you he doesn39t want to be your friend Gift giving creates a relationship of people of equal status Dumont contributed by explaining alliance and hierarchy Marriage exchanges of women between male dominated descent groups predisposes an egalitarian society There is an anthropological idea where people engage in gift giving of goods service money or women What governs their relationship is reciprocity because they have equal status If they have superior status they can ask to get something and you don39t have to give it back When you have political hierarchy you have a king or chief then they can demand from you anything that you want The lower status men don39t get any women They can command verbal status praise They can also command that you give them your woman They collect this stuff and then they use the power of possession and authority to redistribute it to their subjects They collect taxes from their subjects and then will give it to temples or brahmans The king gives the gift and the Brahman conveys it to the god These are relatively small societies governed by face to face interaction Problems arise when people fight for a particular status 2 Periods of political integrations Anthro typology 9 Egalitarian Tribes 9 conical tribes 9 Rational Bureucratic Sates they evolve at different times Ludder Tamil Polities 9 warriors 9 suttans 9 Coloniel Government 0 Sangarm 9 Chola 9 Vijargnas 9 Coloniel Government Apples and Oranges Kingship amp Kinship In the plains tribal organization The best documented case of kingship in the plains See how ideas of ritual rank and hieachy structured them and said its hiearchacal society and NOT egalitarian society African molds in India 1 Segmentary State controversy in a given geographic area you have a bunch of little kingdoms And these are all segments of the overarching king Most authority was purely ritual These segments made up a kingdom As the population grows the kings send out armies into areas outside the valley to set up new towns African molds in India 2 Segmentary lineage organization they are controlling these tribes or castes which are large kinship groups large groups of relatives Everyone in the tribes is related to someone else in the tribe You should only marry within your tribe it is endogenous Caste you MUST marry within the caste The caste can be quite large They are broken up into segments If you go into the plains areas instead of seeing 30 or 40 caste groups you will typically see 45 caste groups Much less economic production to support it In the village life the dominant caste owns all the land In valleys lots of caste groups You have the caste as a whole that39s the largest doll And inside the caste it is divided into clans and each clan divided into lineages Each lineage divided into sub lineages or households and this is an idealized model Each are regarded as a segment within a segmentary lineage organization In Dumont reading they are warlords they are dry plains they are all castes and each have castes and some have subcastes He is talking about the group of Kallar that become a dominant caste This is a very poor caste group It doesn39t have an elaborate social structure Pramalai Piranmalai Kallar Pudokottai Kallar 6 African molds in India 3 quasi kin groups kingship territory cult membership 7 African molds in India 4 Decent is not enough hierarchy and marriage 4 different models from Africa that anthropologists have attempted to foist on india which dominant castes are from the valleys plains are in Congunad Think of native American tribes that belong in a particular area think of the dominant tribes in an area Economic interdependence cultural scale that gave them a status ranking This tribes would belong in a caste system In a given area with lots of tribes in one place one of those tribes will emerge as dominant will own the most land have largest population will have the most men at arms and everyone else who lives there has to accommodate these people There are a lot of variations from region to region Valleys the plains and the hills They are separated by availability of water and by altitude and difficultly of putting together a large population in mountains with not a lot of space to live In valleys amp plains you see many tribes living in the same area If they follow the doctrines of how you should live they are called caste groups there will always be one group that is dominant In the valleys vellalars are domints Plains Maravars and kellars Kaveri river helps with the water supply has the biggest delta All the other rivers for most of the year are completely dry Kaveri has water flowing throughout the year In the river valleys the vellalars are the dominant caste they have developed a veaar brahman alliance In the plains and dry areas you get Maravars and Kellars and these are tamil castes that live in the dry areas Vigarnaga empire operates by sending Telluga warriors This environment is extrememly dry The major source of water is from the south east coast Vadinga include the Reddis and Kamas Only an emperor has the right to propose a special ritual which legitimized his rule as emperor The size of the gov t was getting larger because his control was minimal Overtime the apparatus of the government becomes more powerful and efficient According to baker the relationships between the people of the dominant caste and the relationship between dominant caste and nondominant caste was characterized by their egalitarian rule The nayaks from the north are Vadnga Brahman veaar alliance denotes a particular instance of kinship that relies on the moral order of kingship Is the kings job to be a protect or it39s territority The brahmans came down from the north Then they went to the kings In the plains tribal organization Book Notes 41414 1147 PM Ba njeree pp 223 1 Perceived spirituality of South Asia influenced Western popular culture in 20 century Indus valley civilization IVC Hindu gods trimurti three forms of the divine Brahma the Creator Shiva the Destroyer and Vishnu the Preserver Fourfold social classification known as the varna system Priestly class of Brahmins Warrior class of Kshatriyas Merchants Vaishyas Lower eve serfs called the Shudras Aim of life was moksha liberation from cycle of birth and death Karma one s actions determine one s position in society and in wider creation 200 BCE 2 great Hindu epics the Ramayana and Mahabharata religions such as Jainism and Buddhism evolved in these regions Greek rule Alexander invaded northwestern India Other kingdoms Chera Pandya and Chola emerged in southern India Maldives rules by a Chola King Powerful warriors and crafty politicians Gupta dynasty empire suffered from massive invasion of Huns from central Asia Bhakti primary form of religious devotion in Hinduism Baker Reading River valleys were sites of earliest agricultural settlements Movement of valleys was associated with 2 other important deveopments gradua immigration of Aryan people from the north and development of seaborne trade Immigrants brought collection of philosophical ideas and rules of social conduct Brahmans ritual overseers of valley society Nobel stratum Veaa means the lord of the land At the center of Brahman and Vellala was the king Chola kings were the most active Bhakti preachers Temples were principal means whereby royalty took charge of the bhakti movement Cattle were important in the economy Valleys were still largely populated by Brahmans and Vellalas the plains were shared by immigrant Telugu communities and Tamil herder warriors The plains communities had nibbled into the fringes of the valleys as had other communities like Chettys Nadars and Muslims whose vocation lay mostly in commerce Map 4 The history of Tamilnad passed through 3 distinct phases Agricultural civilization of the river valleys o Elaboration of a material culture centered on rice and irrigation and political culture structured around temples and Brahmanical codes of social status Military talents of the plains 0 New forms of social organization formed in the process of military colonization and new political culture 3 period brought the 2 societies even closer together Valleys Over the years the valleys became prosperous and relatively densely populated These settlements were dominated by the Vellalas and Brahmans who first devised forms of co operative management to control the land and organize the flow of irrigation water Plains There was hunting and herding and later more developed forms of animal husbandry Social structure of these villages revolved not so much around the management of land as the organization of people The groups of Telegus Padaiyichis Kallars and Maravars formed the dominant castes of the plains villages Kongunad Features both the valley and plains type The Kongu Vellala also known as the Gounder adopted many of the Brahmanical customs and social pretensions of the valley Vellalas Mauss Reading moi the word self Pueblo Indians the Zuni is impossible for a Zuni to call another person simply a brother always necessary to say elder brother or younger brother The fraterneties are even more complicated With the Pueblo we see a notion of the person personne or individual absorbed in his clan but already detached from it in the ceremonial by mask his title his rank his role his survival and his reappearance on earth in one of his descendants endowed with the same status forenames titles rights and functions The American North West All the Indians particularly the Kwatkiutl installed their settlements a whole social and religious system where in a vast exchange of rights goods and services property dances ceremonies privileges and ranks persons as well as groups give satisfaction to one another From classes and clans human oersons adjust to one another and how from these the gestures of the actors in a drama fit together One may possess a name as a warrior as a prince or a princess as a chief or a female chieftain The Kwakiutl are the peoples of North West who represent the extremems Men who reincarnate them are intermediaries between the totemic animal and the protecting spirit The names and bequeathals of roles personalities are determined by revelations whose limits indicated by his grandmother or the elders are know to the beneficiary beforehand Australia Societies with permanent masks Zuni Kwakiutl but Austrial has temporary masquerades which are simply cereomonies with masks that are not permanent The Latin persona Notion of the Latin persona a mask tragic mask ritual mask and ancestral mask India Most ancient civilizations aware of the notion of the individual I je is the same IndoEuropean word as ego China birth order rank and interplay of the social classes settles the names and life style of the individual his individuality is his ming his name The persona the persona personne is a basic fact of law Persona still retains the meaning of a superimposed image but it also signifies the human even divine personality The Christian person personne Christians made metaphysical entity of mora person after they became aware of its religious power Unity of the 3 persons of the Trinity Notion of the one that the notion of the person was created and at the same time for the human person substance and mode body and soul consciousness and act Until 17 and 18 century mentality of ancestors obsessed with know whether the individual soul is a substance or supported by a substance whether it is the nature of man only one of the 2 natures of man whether it is one and indivisible or divisible and separable Kant was a Pietist who found the indivisible self moi all around him Conclusion From a masquerade to the make from a role personage to a person personne to a name 9 individual Comm 172 41414 1147 PM 4214 free speech protected by the 1 amendment what does the law allow an employer to do Grading Midterm amp final On campus from 25 pm on Wednesdays At will the presumption is that you are employed but you can be fired for any reason no reason a bad reason and a logical reason Lifeguard video after it was posted they were fired Was the firing legal Yes because its on an at will purpose So they don39t even need a reason to be fired We will learn in this class how to make the firing illegal DeSean Jackson football player they fired him because they thought he was in a gang He was born in poverty and his friends were gang members but they fired him because he had friends that were gang members and thought he was a gang member Sexual harassment it is prevalent in the work place Unwanted physical contact If you said the employer raped the employee that is severe Can you employer fire you for certain dress that you wear Many people won39t employ you for having tattoos Lifestyle discrimination many states don39t have this If you have off duty behavior in certain states it might be protected Loyalty oats you swear certain allegiances to your employer What is a reason why someone wouldn39t want to sue People may judge you negatively if you file a lawsuit It is illegal to ask if you have been arrested Lawyers will work for you for free continqency work This means that when you get a recovery the way you pay your lawyer they get a percentage of it You are free to negotiate with the lawyer over contingency percentages Get insurance Counter sue Represent people sued for malicious prosecution Due to slap statue so it renders a death Slung because filed a lawsuit against you Slap statue this rendered a dead letter If you file a lawsuit based on protected activity If you lose on a slap motion you must pay the other side Generally there is nothing to lose Quid pro give me a blowjob and you can keep yourjob Severance package the written offer after you get fired They are paying you It is a release claim Independent contractor issue Hairdresser situation leaves perm in too long and burns the hair but they were best friends What would you do Sue the employer That presupposes the hairdresser is employed Are hairdresser s employees or independent contractors Hair stylists pay rent for their space sometimes they bring in their own suppHes They decided to sue They sued the employer the hair salon and the hair stylist If you want to get a haircut you call to make an appointment You call the hair salon This is Beverly hills and you park in valet they are an employer employed by the hair salon When you sit down they bring in espresso and coffee and magazines purchased by the employer Independent person does the wash employed by the employer not done by the hair stylist Before you get a wash you need to put a smock on with the name of the salon o If you are seeing a therapist they will use that against you They asked Fink if he knew they were in a fight with their husbands or that they are seeking therapy 0 So is the hairstylist an independent contractor or employee If you are sued as an independent contractor you need to have your own separate insurance 0 You should have a contract between hair stylist and salon Try to create the situation where the person looks like the independent contractor Read the FedEx cases who has the right to control LA Bites you want to eat at California pizza kitchen and they bring you 100 worth of pizza to your door LA bites gets 30 Through LA Bites tell you to go to CPK and go to the dorm the drivers have to pay LA bites for advertising get paid zero class certification if you file for this then it gets granted how to figure out a better resolution They reduce the amount they can39t pay 37 million and they would go out of business The judge determines if this is appropriate The LA bite is a good example of how guys are making a lot of money and ONE person can take you down Labor code 2802 they are being paid zero means they didn39t pay minimum wage didn39t pay overtime didn39t pay them proper checks The penalty is between 5 15000 One person can take you down for a misclassification If our house burnt down we have insurance Some people who have a small business have a problem to pay for insurance If you39ve been sued a lot you won39t get an insurance policy The smart thing would be to have insurance Table dancing go to nice establishment usually ladies are table dancing and you tip them You go into the clubs and you buy tokens Is the person an employee or independent contractor They are an employee What if the person got to choose her own song The token was sold by the management to you What if Fink tells them they can choose their own songs and wear their own clothes then this would be an independent contractor You have to spend a lot of money to get the customers to come to the establishment Labor code 2922 Comm 172 Notes 41414 1147 PM 4914 words are important in analyzing your rights Ideas from the readings If you go to work and they ask you to arbitrate or if you have a dispute they asked you to arbitrate What does arbitration mean It is a bad provision for us The employer is avoiding having these legal claims What type of person serves as an arbitrator Retired judges people who have been lawyers from 3040 years The employer must pay for all the costs associated with arbitration look at pg 6 in the book When you go into court who is hearing it The jury In the Fed Ex case Discussion of labor code 2802 says if you39re an employee you39re employer is responsible to reimburse you for all costs associated with your employment They didn39t reimburse them for all the miles that they were driving 0 2802 deals with reimbursement If you39re a male accused of sexual harassment then any time of harassment is a type of claim where you can be sued individually Your employer in CA is strictly liable If you39re being sued in connection with your employment your employer should reimburse you for the cost associated with your lawyer 2802 is an important statutory provision if you want to stop the illegal practice you need to court to issue an order Abercrombie amp Fitch models only white guys No blacks or Asians They are targeting to a certain look It is illegal and they got sued paid a settlement for 40 million They were only hiring people who fit this look to work there Attorney39s fees the winner in every lawsuit is the attorney Clearly case ways around at wi The America rule in this country when you39re involved in litigation there are only 2 ways for you to get the other side to pay attorney39s fees One is by contract For example we have a contract with the landlord in our apartment complex The second is by statute Because of the importance of civil rights congress and legislatures have given civil rights statutes of prevailing party provisions 2 people are friends one friend wants 1000 She doesn39t pay you back What do you do Class action the class gets certified If an employers made misclassification of one person You39re only looking at paying off one person If the class get s certified then it could change to millions of dollars It has to be approved by a judge There are various tests to determine if someone is an independent contractor If you hire a gardener to come to your house and have them clean your garden do you care how they get it done You just want to result to look perfect Then that39s an independent contractor You just want the grass to look clean Conversely a secretary is an employee What if you called her an executive assistant From the Estrada reading if it looks like a duck walks like a duck then it must be a duckquot They try to give people fancy titles some people will take less money to get a bigger title The test in the cases we read is the agency test There are various tests used The common law test is who has the right to control Think is it better or worse to be an employee or an independent contractor If you39re an independent contractor what are you loosing You39re loosing all the protections you would have as an employee You wouldn39t have the general protections against race discrimination you don39t get employee benefits Notes from this week39s readings Pg 46 notion of progressive discipline The discipline gets more severe as you have more infractions The first is an oral warning then written warning then suspension and then termination It is not consistent with at wi employment If you are the employer and want the at wi then you don39t want to take steps that are contrary to it This is good for the employee and it is a very important concept P 46 also doctrine called removal Fink sued Starbucks several times If you work for Starbucks and you39re a barista You close up at 10 and at 959 someone comes and put gun to your head but actually they came at 1001 when it needed to be closed at 10 pm and left some patio furniture But since you violated their policy you get fired Seems like they are now firing her because she will now have a mental disability and might have to go on a leave This reason doesn39t make any sense CA is the last state you want to do business in if you39re an employer Starbucks will remove the action to federal court they don39t want to be in state court In state court you do not need a unanimous jury you only need 9 And in federal you need an unanimous jury Federal judges are very smart and have the best law clerks in the na on In order to remove a case you need complete diversity You cannot sue an individual for a personnel decision You can sue a person for harassment Compulsory sef defamation you get fired and you don39t think you did anything wrong but the boss says that you stole Now you leave and have to get another job If it39s false then you can sue for defamation Most states have at wi 30 or more states have it Montana is the most employment friendly state When someone is fired you can look at different aspects Was it because you were a woman were gay were Catholic Etc There are some people who are employed not at an at wi basis Cause death disability or a crime or moral turpitude Rick Patino famous basketball player Had a big contract He was not fired Compare Patino to a guy named Bobby Patrino Bobby Patrino 18 million dollar mistake There was a student at Arkansas and she got a position Patrino was married with 4 kids He got in a bicycle accident and it happens that this woman was on the bike but he lied that she was there The biggest mistake is that he lied he didn39t come clean If you are ever in a position to command a written contract you need to hire a good lawyer Position that you can be fired for cause is if you39re a union employee Implied fact contact if you have this with your employer they need cause to fire you This is an exception around at wi Is a contract claim If you39re successful you only get contract damage and not attorney fees Clearly case he won Why was he able to stay to claim the implied fact contact One factor is longevity of service Second is oral assurance may be the employer Third is personal service of the employer Aussie Geon said that he loved Castro He was a dictator and many lives were lost But does Aussie has his rights to say that he loves Castro his first amendment right will not be violated if he is fired Martin talking about Sarah Palin and how someone should shit in her mouth He got fired Wrongful termination of public policies you get injured you say you want to file a workers comp 9 you get fired The labor code says you39re allowed to go to jury duty 9 you get fired Marvin Howard Fink Is a lawyer and had 3 kids who were lawyers He was working for 40 years and then got fired They were having a reduction force 9 got rid of all the high ranking Jews Good case of age discrimination Case about the casino You can quit but they say that you39re fired destructive discharge If you came to work everyday and you39re being harassed and they39re not doing anything about it You can quit and claim that you39re fired One employee can wipe you out and sue you for 1 million What39s the magic word Insurance EPLI POLICY EPLI protects you against employment claims discrimination termination You can negotiate with an insurance company you would want the best lawyer that you can get Insurance is a really big thing Civil code 47 Labor code 1150 get double damages about certain employers Nonfraternization no hooking up allowed in the work place 41414 1147 PM Anthro 179 41814 246 PM 41514 Power in the valley is power over land and power in the plains is power over people Baker makes contrast between kinship and kingship apples amp oranges Gounder vellalars transit zone that armies traders could pass through on their way to the west coast or up north Control of the transit zone was important for the kings They had a hierarchical structure present Every relationship is defined in terms of how you39re related to that person and these obligations that you owe to these kinship reflect your position in a kingroup Tribe is divided up into 4 clans and each clan in turn is divided up into Hneages There are brothers who will fight about who gets the fathers land etc Brother and cousin will come together and fight the other brother Kinship distance people in kinship family are those closest to you Dinka resides outside the tribe of the Nuer very warlike people Do Maravars use kinship the same way as Vellalars You would have to do a detailed study which hasn39t been done yet Professor looked at land castes Money is just a symbol for talking about social relationships The groups are not only structured about ideas on their relatives but how you can manipulate in your own favor or to help them out because you like them Structured about the land or territory which they live in also structured by membership of their cut which is a church All of these people are not just called relatives they are called pangali A pangali comes from the word pangu or share holder and the members of the groups on the chart are called pangi Everyone has a share in the territory controlled by the kinship group And everyone has a share participating in the rights of their local god The local groups on the ground can39t be only determined in terms of kinship also determined in terms of territory as well Marriage Alliance It is necessary to take into account if you want to understand society in India The African models look just at descent and isomorphic relationships but this isn39t going to be enough Breaks it up into kin and affine so we call them marriage groups affines and groups that are members of some descent group that you belong to these are people that you cannot marry Cross vs Parallel Affine vs Kin Marriageable vs Non marriageabe We have strong prohibitions in the west about marrying your first cousin Dumont says you almost never find bilateral cross cousin marriage Cross cousin marriage we can talk about bilateral matrilateral or patrilateral x cousin marriage Exchange system where women are being exchanged between descent groups Most people especially plains people practice matrilateral marriage Is effective for using alliances with lots of lineages to control lots of territory Patrilateral the pattern where women are exchanged changes every generation Typically tends to be between small groups of people We are also talking about patrilineal and matrilineal groups Lineal groups from father39s line or mother39s line You are born into it Traditionally people take their father39s name We have a patrilineal emphasis Linearity is a form of recruitment into a kin group Also talking about patrilocal and matrilocal Locality refers to where you live after you marry post marital residence Dumont talks about a lot of variation After a bride and groom get married either lives with the bride39s parents family but they have to supply them with their own house Patriarchy and matriarchy refers to a form of government Mauss Reading One major approach to personhood We39re going to look at an analytic context Mauss was nephew of Dirkine he took a look at nonwestern societies In this paper he did his own translations from transcript He died very young in World War I Dirkine and Mauss find their intellectual descendants both whom are working together Mauss are still writing as if they were in the 19 century You have a social evolutionary sequence a sequence moving from savagery 9 barbarianism 9 civilization Hopefully got the distinction between subject amp object between I in the first person and me in the second person between the personage and the personne between the self and the character or role or mask Between a psychological agent and a juristic object In the case of Northwest coast Indians we are looking at a savage society a mechanical society and he sees this as reflected in Pueblos Australian aborigines People don39t distinguish between their inner self and their character The names masks and roles typically symbolize that persons totemic clan In short by acquiring the name and the mask of a clan ancestor a person becomes that ancestor and according to Mauss everything is dictated to them You have no freedom of will in a savage society you have to do what your totemic ancestor is supposed to do Just as your father took on the mask of his ancestor you must do the same as well For Mauss there is no distinction between the person and the object But when he gets to the barbarian society and talks about India and china there he says you have an abortive distinction between a personage and a person between an agent and a object They are beginning to distinguish these types of things Needs to be characteristic of modern society but he says it39s an abortive because it39s one reaching with the universe and putting society behind you where you can free yourself from the role that society puts upon you to become one with god There are dualistic philosophies of Hindu but also monistic philosophies that deny that distinction When it comes to China he does a similar kind of thing The Ming is internal and insoluble replacing birth order rank and ancestral identity They revert to personhood which was associated with totemic ancestors in savage societies He looks at Roman law legal person as an object A distinction between a person39s family name his nickname and his forename Also observes that in roman law the noman is both falsifiable and transferable Slaves are defined as someone who has no personality does not own his own body has no ancestors has no personal belongings There is a distinction and in general he takes a look at what happens with certain moral conceptions that he finds in ancient Roman law and in Christianity He notices that persons are constructed as rational as being made of substance indivisible and individual as something that modern philosophers call a consciousness There is a little bit of a qualification Mauss makes reference between essence and substance The individual agent persone is a shadow by the underlying essence of reality Here there is a parallel with dualistic beliefs is an illusion against the underlying truth of the subdividing truth Mauss reviews a lot of western philosophers dealing with this issue According to Mauss in the west as in China but not in India the reflection or shadow is the title of a social group We are now civilized persons agents living in an organic society and not a mechanical society You can decide if you want to accept society39s value or since you39re an agent with free will you can take off your mask be yourself and reject what society wants The HW asks to compare approach to defining a person that Mauss takes vs what Goodnough takes For now take the fundamental distinction between an agent and an object Between a subject and someone defined by society and has to follow a set of rules Agency and societies expectations for different kinds of persons We can reject the evolutionary aspect of it but still look at everything else he talks about When we read Goodnough he will also talk about social definitions and expectations of a person But then he will say in every day life people use their agency ability to exercise free will to decide what they will do about expectations about how they need to behave He talks about the components that go into social expectations about how the self will have expectations and free will 41714 Mauss presented the 19 century social evolutionary scheme for different people who life in different societies corresponding to different kinds of societies you have different kinds of persons in savage societies can tell different between themselves of agent to object of moral prescription if they are an object there are laws written about it thou shall not Mauss assumes for every person in savage society it39s as if you put on a mask and once you put it on then you can39t act in any other way that society prescribes for you In civilized society people have a self of their own sense hood and they can decide if they want to follow the rules or break them they have agency One hand they have agency one hand free will and barbarian is a mixture abortive Not until you get into the West that you have free will Don39t take the evolutionary scheme but contrast as self as agent vs self as object People can act as agents if they are given a Social definition of who they are Mauss argues that people only get this choice in organic society and civilization and in mechanical society they have to follow blindly what society sets for them Society puts expectations on how to be good moral and proper people of that time Since you have free will you can decide if you want to refuse what society expects do it or something in between Expectations of people as certain kinds of objects Your choice is an agent dealing with these social definitions The objects the rules that you have to behave Goffman excellent observer At a playground watching kids playing acting as cowboys and Indians They are kids 610 He notices that the older kids are also playing but they are distancing themselves from the cowboys and Indians Making a nonverbal statement that they know it39s not the real thing Goffman calls this role distance a sense of self that is distant from the role Proposing a developmental sequence from childhood 9 adolescence 9 adulthood As we get older or become more civilized as Mauss describes we can look at the role that society provides for us distance ourselves and decide what we want to do Or we can bend the rules Is a very interesting kind of parallel We have a notion that people can act as agents when given a special set of social expectations of how they have to act Work rationality if you have a bunch of goals you will act most rational to get to those goals Ends rationality goals given to you by society Not rational in that sense of calculation It is the cultural givens that within which you will operate with means rationality which is bound by social preferences for goals Different societies define social identity in different ways Anthropology describes and understands how society describes what they are trying to do Goodenough Reading He was strongly influenced by linguistics Funded a project on the island of Truk Trukese people Goodenough was anthropologist on the team with linguistic background Linguisticethnographic approach to kinds of speech acts Statements that give rules on how you should behave He identified behaviors by putting them together to see if they were similar todifferent from another statement or action Have to identify a schema of categories and see how they relate to each other in that schema Man as a rule following or ruleoriented animal Goodenough breaks into social identity social status personal identity and role He describes role as the dynamic enactment of social status Two possible problems in this essay Systematic ambiguity in social status Potential ambiguity Rule theory talks about status talks about status and identity Status used to be defined as a collection of rights and duties Role dynamic aspect of status the putting into effect of its rights and du es Social identity particular positions like policeman student He says that identity is separate from the status A policeman is one until they take his badge away his status is different from his identity Social identity is a cultural variable it remains easy to confuse issue by using it to refer to a social variable For Goodenough a social identity is a cultural variable A culture is a set of values that members share Frequently the cultural category and social position are similar Goodenough remains consistent in his use of social identity use notes the cultural category and not the social position Social identity is linked to concept of social status Linkage of social identity and social status He is talking about jural and communicative rues there is a problem about how Goodenough is talking about it He is discussing rules in a communicative sense He fails to the extent rule breaking and rule bending relationships Communicational status definition on worksheet You have a situation we are students and we have a teacher He is going to lecture and we are going to listen and if things are confusing we will raise our hand and ask a question His social identity is teacher and ours is student and we have certain norms on how to behave But if he breaks that expectation such as saying if anyone wants an A write a note on the back of a hundred dollar bill What would you do Either leave or call a lawyer Once he breaks the rules we are entitled to use our knowledge and break the rules in an appropriate way This is appropriate to break the taboo because he broke it first Goodenough talks about the status communicated and occasions where it39s appropriate to comply with the rule and violate the rule some occasions where you would want to bend the rule Talk about status and identity keep them separate and you can talk about role as a dynamic enactment of status for rule following rule bending or rule breaking People frequently break codes of behavior in a meaningful ways relationship of status to identity is open and variable People choose to ask in ways that are socially approved 41814 246 PM 41814 246 PM 41814 246 PM Week 4 Notes 42414 1129 PM 42214 Character who is the heroine has a social identity within the cultural framework of her community also has a social position On Thursday be prepared to identify the different identity relationships that she interacts with 3 women the co viagers adult mature married women reciprocal status relationship They are all equally mature women in the village There are a lot of expectations about the normative status they should have There are ways mature women should act with each other They may bend or break the rules Good house wife Rukmati vs bad house wife Kundti Rukmati is also a wife to her husband Nathan the status relationship is very asymmetric She never called him by his name in her entire wife because it is appropriate for them to refer to their husbands as husband She deals with her husband and children deals with sons differently then daughters deals with Kenny then deals with the authoritative figures differently then she deals with other people Make a list of the other social identity relationships that she comes through and identify the normative status relationships which they need to enter Status dimension of respect between everyone she has a lower status then the male figures The interactions of the women with each other have an equal status She should only have a sexually close relationship with her husband Kundti the prostitute is violating expectations of society What kind of rules get broken Look at the taboos and how they are broken will show a status dimension Rules that are violated taiti 42414 Nectar in a Sieve people from untouchable castes and they serve as bonded labor even slaves for the landowners some people like Nathan he has physical strange and can work on the land of the Zemindar Tenant farmers if you get a bad year with no farmers the people who are barely scratching out enough to survive then they are screwed when this bad weather comes They may be kicked off their land The only social assurance you have are your kin your relatives In the Harper piece in one essay you get incredible detail about the ins and outs of daily life will see wedding rituals other ceremonies he will explain the ideas and concepts by which people understand these events Wedding of Rukmani and Nathan move to Nathan39s house patrilocal postresidence Rukmani s famiy her dad owned land he was wealthy and power was the village headman Owned a lot of land and had political authority then he became unimportant and the collector supersedes him When the British came in they wanted to get as much of the wealth of the country side out of people39s hands and into their hands They wanted to collect taxes and cut out the Zemindar In countries like India and China they have a strong preference for males and the numbers are increasing while there should have been more women yet they were not raised properly After she moves to Nathan39s house they have a baby girl Rukmani s mother dies and Kenny is needed Rukmani is unable to bare children again so she goes to Kenny 0 We don39t know why she was infertile Son39s are really important but we see that Nathan doesn39t leave Rukmani through this yet it affect Rukmani terribly Rukmani went through every traditional means she could to bare a child but it didn39t work so she went to Kenny Kenny is a hero he has some attachment to India and he does a lot of good things After Rukmani sees Kenny she bares 5 sons There is a tannery being built represents industrialization the tannery requires a lot of water the ringleader is Kundthi s son he makes friends with Rukmani s sons and together they form a union to try to get better unions but that doesn39t work well and they go off to Sri Lanka to try and find work 0 One of Rukmani s sons is killed Ira gets married but then returns childless Nathan is the father of Kunthi s sons Kunthi blackmails both Nathan and Rukmani They don39t have enough money to feed themselves Kenny has given Selvan a job at the hospital and he promises he will take care of Ira and herson Nathan and Rukmani head to find their other son Meets Puli he is a leader even with his disease Nathan39s death and Rukmani is by herself with no husband and persuades Puli to stay with her she promises to take her of him and Kenny will help he will have a family with her Return of Rukmani with Pull Kenny39s hospital with Selvan and Kenny will help with Pui s leprosy Harper reading for Tuesday Village for Brahman s a king took this land from the dominant caste and allowed him to give it to a bunch of Brahmans will be a much wealthier village of landowners and they are concerned with orthodox practices and beliefs It39s an ethnographic description Different categories of people have towards each other As you read this if you look at your syllabus look at the study guide which is on the syllabus which gives a list of the categories and rituals to focus on gives the page number on which it occurs What do members of a family owe to each other on an occasion of a funeral What about if a daughterwife is having her period Look at the status dimensions they express when they interact with each other 42414 1129 PM Week 5 Notes 5314 547 PM 42914 endowments to temples to Brahmin s priest India failed to become industrialized A Brahmin will always be more pure than a Shudra You cannot have that exalted Brahmin status When the British came over they realized there were too few British to control a country as big as India You have to involve the local society so they go to Brahmin administrators Purity is developed in a village where the dominant caste is Brahmins legitimizes their control In Harper article explains how well the ideology works 5114 The Weeds The Hindu Cootie theory of pollution 0 There39s always that kid who has the cooties they are polluting members of their class and if you come in contact you can catch their cooties so you stay away from them 0 Preliminary way of translating all these Hindu ideas The social selectivity of substances touched and eaten The conductivity of mediating substances The General Model that Harper gives us Harper39s model of a socially fit meme The Model religion worship and exchange Individuals and the social order 7 Caste and kinship 8 How pollution operates in between individuals or individuals in themselves This essay was written a long time ago Different analytic traditions of Anthro you can say it39s an example of structura functionaism Looks at the structure of beliefs and asks how that structure functions to create and reproduce over time the caste system Is like a form function how does this relate to function Presupposes that all non western societies are cold and unchanging societies they don39t have the heat to change they are traditional because they don39t change Non western societies unlike our own got stuck in a 19 century revolutionary rut which they couldn39t change Some stuck in savagery some evolved and got stuck in barbarism it is only us in the west who kept evolving to become a modern civilization Any other culture than your own is more primitive than you English claim they are superior to the French 0 French have the opposite view 0 In America we know that we39re at the pinnacle of civilization Post structura functionaists would paste this label of being racist Difficult doing historical studies with people who don39t have written documents many people speculated There are ways of tapping into the past though archeological documentation Retrieved from structural functionaism if we drop the thought that societies are frozen in time and instead believe that they are constantly going under change then we can get back to asking structure and functions Does it evolve What is it about some customs or rituals that makes it socially fit enough to be reproduced An individual is always emitting behavior Certain individuals repeat themselves over time Models of evolution that were available to people need to be modified if we want to see something useful We can take a lot of biology and borrow their ideas broadly Socially fit means that they can last a long time What are the qualities of this whole system of pollution beliefs that Harper describes They continue to reproduce over time and how do they work They work by providing people with a way of adapting to their environment which is attractive to the people Motivates them to guide their actions System of relationships that exists between people amp gods and between different types of people A model of worship and exchange On first or second page he gives an outline form of the qualities that he wants to look at Begins on pg 151 he has 8 or 9 points 1 the basic belief about how worship is done and what it constitutes A relationship of exchange between man and god You give a gift as a token for gratitude and something you had done for you Exchange mode harper points to this at the core Gods can be worshipped only by mortals of high virtual purity Brahmins can only intercede on behalf of the community if the non Brahmin community takes on an action that makes him so polluted Purity status dimension of relative purity Heightened purity normal state state of being polluted Brahmin priests going through rituals to achieve heightened state they are culturally becoming gods in order to worship the gods It39s a reciprocal relationship To achieve this state Brahmins who are already in a high status will achieve an even more heightened status When a devotee wants to give to a god first gives to priest who becomes a god to give it to the gods then the gods will distract its subtle essence leaving behind the garbage Ritual pollution transmitted through certain kin relationships Born from same parents you have the same substance Men plant a seed in the womb of the women oven where it cooks for 10 months Among kinsmen you have people that are status equal they are of the same caste so people are very concerned about pollution and status of their kinsmen Harper what you can do to avoid pollution or to remediate pollution if you become polluted This is high thing When you have two status dimensions and they are not congruent that is the essence of the caste system in its most idealized form If the 2 systems are congruent a divine king who is the most wealthy and pure kings then you have 2 status dimensions that create a class system Why do low caste systems accept to be in a very low status Who would want to accept that Only way to get divine benefits are by worshipping the higher status because they are kin with other untouchables and that whole category can39t do anything BUT these demeaning activities They cannot change their status To change their individual status must change the entire jati to which they belong Types of pollution Saivayetchi a lot of people drink cups where they don39t let their lips touching the cup It39s very pronounced For us it is compared to touching pee fear of sef poution You eat on a banana leaf and when you39re done someone in a lower caste will fold it over and throw it away so you never eat on that again They don39t eat off plates because you can39t clean it all that well some lingering pollution will stay on it Clay seems to retain pollution more than metals do Coming in contact with saliva is polluting but you don39t have to come into direct contact with saliva They can be polluting in their own right but also work as conductors of pollution In life some things may pollute you but something s are worth it because of the benefit such as child birth Death poution what does Harper tell us about that Social conditions how close you are and how pollution is spread to you your close relatives are how they spread to you mostly if it39s a close relative you are polluted for a long time if it39s a distant relative you are not in pollution for as long and don39t have to do many things to get out of it Menstrual poution if you39re interacting with someone that will come in contact with this you would rather not do it There is someone who washes menstrual clothes Look at the article by Victor Turner Week 6 Notes 5814 5914 149 PM Breakdown for HW 3 bibliography amp citation if you make a claim about what a theorists says you need to cite the course in the body of your text author harper bio data some information from first page of article in the footnote He was at the University of Washington and had an associate position harper39s central argument Central argument connection between culture of pollution and central organization of castes pg 151152 Just like we believe raising economy raises all ships Hindu s believe that raising level or purification raises all ships This ideology provides basis for people at the bottom this is the only way they can get any benefits from the gods They might think that this really disadvantages them and they may convert to Buddhism or Christianity and this creates its own counter reaction Sometimes they use force to stay in the Hindu system this is an ongoing thing attacks from upper castes to lower castes This could well be understood as the structuralfunctionalist anaysis form on anthropological analysis categories of actoractivity don39t only look for people who belong to different castes or different kinds of kin categories take a look at entities that are not people like ghosts gods spirits and these can have their own jati or castes Word for caste is jati or varna this means kind or category harper as a structural functionalist if you are doing a structural functionalism argument you are constructing a form function argument Something has a form which is adapted for what it does criticisms of structural functionaism argument that they confuse function with causation You need to unpack what39s going on In 1950s linguistics had a powerful impact on anthropological theory especially in America Necessary for the society to continue although the caste system may not be fair think about the lower castes does this benefit the society at large The untouchables and Shudras make it possible for society to function through their duties Harper similar to Samskara the dominant castes are invested in the Brahmin model about HOW things work Now do they buy this model outside of their Brahmin village Douglas theory in relation to structural functionalism applied to Harper 0 Douglas says you can39t just extract a single piece that you O 0 find you have to look at the total system ex for the bible can39t just look at one portion must look at all of it Jews and Muslims not eating pork Pollution rules fit the cognitive dissidence when things fail to fit categories of the universe Respect to the ideas with what she has to the world British in contrast to French Structuralist How is this applied to Harper dirt out of place cognitive dissidence how does this apply to things that are polluting in Havik Brahmin 0 Things having to do with the body are typically what people may find problematic in a context Cow dung their status is so high so you can use their cow dung to clean things Death pollution why does this or any life cycle event a cause for pollution An initiation or puberty right You have kids running around get older and become adults At a certain point they are neither child or adult When someone first dies he has a spirit but if his son39s don39t do the proper rights or if a women is killed in the wrong way the spirit may go on but the ghost may get left behind this causes trouble Non iving and spiritual thing Who will the ghost haunt It will haunt people of the immediate family Deals with rites of passages generay beyond rites of passage to change in status in society at all o Rites and passage comes along what happens during period of transition People undergo all kinds of tings Stripped of old identity go through a bunch of rituals which may involve giving emblems or identity that are not their own all of this highlight o If people change their status and identity then whatever the change may be there39s a period of transition which can be disruptive rituals allow you to do this without disrupting society but can also disrupt society o Turner sometimes puts society through transition theory of ritual process to explain social change 0 van forrenep ramanajan Turner in relation to structural functionalism and British structuralism ramanujan Harper Douglas Turner Relation to plot of Samskara Week 7 Notes 51614 120 PM 51314 first essay by Mary Douglas she began talking about some of the older theories that her work was based on she mentions theories on Durkeim and wanted to make a distinction on what they had done and what she was going to do Provided with a different analysis than Harpers 2 clear examples 1 of structural functionalist and the other was british structuralism Douglas doesn39t deal directly with Hindu ideas of pollution How do these different approaches analyze those beliefs Harper and Douglas In common they both present functional arguments Look at a function belief and ask what that does Structural functionalists reproduce society Douglas pollution thesispoution beliefs and taboos about it are there so you do not experience a cognitive dissidence as you operate in the world And if you experience it then there39s something you can do to remediate it It is focused on the individual A need to get away from whatever it is that39s polluting Durkeim beliefs expressed in rituals and pictures ultimately say something about society and any action that you do that conforms with beliefs and functions will have a function in reproducing society that it symbolizes Douglas says throughout 19 century it causes problems if you look around people have all types of taboos that can undertake the context of the sacred Others take place in the profane world In 19 century instead of calling those things religion they call it magic Douglas there is no difference from goodbad pollution They are about providing people a way of handling things that don39t fit with their view of the world Turner inevitability of coming across things that are confusing not one category or another and these are the things around which ideas about taboos and having to arise with objects arise Focusing on how the mind operates with process experience Structures of knowledge that people learn that there39s a normal state of things and non norma state of things Van Gennep for him a ritual that has a social function in a stable society of transforming a status from one to another or one social identity to another social identity Marriage changes from unmarried 9 married Funeral living 9 death Rituals change your state and generalize life cycle rituals To go through another state must go through liminality and the stage in the middle is negotiated through the use of rituals British look more at social explanations Harper idea of the caste system and the need for high caste people to worship is based on pollution beliefs Douglas in a caste society they will be worried about bodily emissions as sources of purity In harper the more like someone else you are the less at risk for pollution if you interact with them Sociological discussion in Douglas but she is talking about the categories It39s the cognitive structure the mental structures that people have in their mind categories that are regarded as polluting because they are anomalies they are dirt out of place DOUGLAS Harper represents the structural functional approach sociological function of the ways that rituals reproduce society Douglas look at the whole package taboos apply to things that don39t fit your package things that are okay in one context that aren39t okay in another context British structuralism focuses less on institutions and more on cognitive structures more on cultures Turner influenced by ideas on conflict and change in society the way some societies do seem to reproduce themselves and stay the same over time influenced by structure of mind and cultural pattern Influenced by Van Gennep In what context do people encounter objects that are taboo He comes across his own figures Middle phase not in one normal state nor another separated from one status but not reincorporated into another one Afterwards of Samskara Ramanjan says Samskara has several meanings some narrow and precise In most defined sense it is a funeral rite But in another sense it is any rite of passage Literal meaning of the word is refinement refine essence of moving from one state to another It fits well with what turner says We have Naranappa the bad Brahmin drinks liquor consorts with untouchables eats meat prostitute He39s a polluting character and other Brahmins don39t know what to do with him They ignore him but now he dies he39s an anomalous character Should they treat him like a Brahmin Didn39t he outcaste himself by doing all this He39s a Brahmin but not a Brahmin so how do they deal with him They would be more sympathetic as treating like Brahmin if they inherit his gold Maybe they are no better brahmins that Naranappa was Turner likes to look at initiation rites in societies that seem to be stable Society is moving people from one status to another according to social norms that will reproduce society There are anomalous things in society but there are phases we go through He says that sometime liminal characters stay this way and instead of changing themselves they change society Pranachariya and naranappa together change society On the end p is undergoing major changes himself Becoming more liminal with respect to cultural norms Ramanajan draws on turner to explicate plot of samskara Douglas gives good sense about what needs to be cognitively anomalous and dysfunctional No one is willing to perform the proper rites to translate him into social norms as a proper dead person his corpse is rotting Spirit hasn39t been translated Anomalous character and no one is dealing with it so EVERYONE IS IN A STATE OF POLLUTION Harper detailed systematic analysis of individual pollution events His is not a theoretical piece gives ethnographic detail of what39s going on so in the novel in samskara and when they find that naranappa is dead he runs to the village and tells them to not eat Harper describes the taboos on behavior that follow they cannot eat unless the cremate the body but cannot cremate body because there is no solution for this 51514 Understanding human behaviors as signals Daniel adopts an approach developed by Charles Sauder Durkeim people are robots programmed by society attributionnal theory that focuses on the rules for ranking people of different castes based on the attributes of the collective conscious of the people View culture as a system of rules that people internalize and follow Another approach to understanding how different castes get ranked try to get the highest possible purity rank that they can interaction approach British colonial industrials faced with problem of the enormous population so they went to people who were experts They tended to be the administrators who tended to be Brahmins They told the British how the Brahmins are the most important people they are more pure they worship the gods Brahmins and British administrators worked together to plan out a caste Caste was invented by colonialism this is one view But before the British arrived what was there Val Daniel Daniel said you don39t just want to look at caste Jati s are separated by rules of endogamy economically interdependent different castes specialize in different ways and they are ritually ranked in terms of relative purity Daniel says that we are making too much of the notion of caste He says caste simply means kind type category What kind of person are you You can39t just talk about social groups must expand to see what all these different types of things are made of What is there substance He says that it39s a complex substance made of elements and humors and dispositions In some contexts purity is very important and if you have an entity that has goona intellectual spiritual disposition that you find in the substance of Brahmins it is not found so much in other castes There are multiple rankings that jump up to the level of theory Dumont s position is consistent with what we read in Harper Dumont attributional theory Daniel and Kim Marriot Transactional theory You have view of India being structure by ritual purity Opposite view to universal Brahminism multiple status skills based on different statuses Marriot evolved into ethno socioogy out of an interactional approach to caste ranking Saussure basic distinction between language langue and speech parole Any utterance you make is your speech Your language has a pattern which you can infer inductively by watching how people speak to each other For Saussure the subject matter of linguistics is language is a disposition to pattern your utterances in a certain way You have a knowledge of pattern in English that you can39t see but if you listen you can make a deduction Perse said that signs are triadic between and objectreprestarraninterpreter According to perse the world is the idealized view of the universe that we will arrive at in the end of time There39s a progress in our understanding of the world We have a better understanding of the world now at the end of time they will have a perfect understanding about the world Daniel says that the Saussurier view is wrong because it only talks about signs and objects But that39s not even the major focus of Saussurian relationships You really want patterns that underlie those speech acts Then talk about the values of different signs want to see what signs relate to each other Sign object is part of the Pursian triad it39s not missing from it Icons are sign that refer by virtue to the thing they are referring to And index refers to it39s object either connected to it or causing it When a thermometer get s hot the mercury rises The length of the column of mercury is caused by temperature is an index of the temperature Likewise if you39re on the beach and you see a crow s nest coming over the horizon you say ah it39s a ship It39s connected to the ship for the crow s nest to act as an indexical sign Daniel will talk about other aspect of purse breakdown of firstness secondness and thirdness Week 8 Notes 52314 1023 PM 52014 El El El Way of looking at how to be a person Daniel39s perspective is a newer way to look at it Final paper interested in having an essay about different ways to study personhood ethnographic and theoretical perspectives we have readtalked about in class 0 Take 1 specific ritua ritual of divination of flowers Ch 4 or 5 on divination and concerns with health Daniel will take the whole divination by flowers and explain how it works in detail His technique is different instead of dropping flower petals he talks redwhite flowers and throws them and sees what combination of red or white comes up o Analyze this process of divination of flowers as described by Daniels but explain how Daniel says it words and then speculate how Harper Turner Douglas etc might have explained it if they had the information that Daniel provides 0 Will see how Daniel takes these ideas and applies them to how people think about their villages Different ways of approaching any society there was a Durkeimian approach more or less which you can conceive of as a dramatist approach society writes the rules You internalize as you grow up and then you follow them What you do according to the mechanical view and what you39re supposed to do as a person is follow the rules of society Most of our behavior is not deliberate is not rational A lot of our behavior is entirely unconscious think about the ant and centipede example With Daniel we see another body of theory people began to take ideas seriously about symbolic mediation When we communicate with each other we do so through symbols which we exchange Words gestures clothing that serves as symbolic emblem of who you are and what statement you want to make makeup Increasingly focus on symbols as objects of study so we could understand whether people were saying things verbally or non verbay Saussure came up with the definition as a sign as something that stands for something else The word dog stands for an animal Signifier to signified is extremely important reference of signification He was not interested in reference but interested for what it could tell about something else Definitions of the sign Says that Saussurian definition of a sign isn39t right but it39s actually a communication process Daniel talks about this triadic relationship not just 2 things involved Reference and communicationspeech acts Signifiersignified Bring Saussurian and Piercian together Speech acts People have developed the locutionary meaning of words then illocutionary meaning What is the intent of the speaker Perlocutionary affect What is the difference between an iconindexsymbol Signs that refer to an object signifiers that signifies a signified Icon resembles the object that they refer to o Iconic signs onomatopoeia eg woof woof Making an utterance that refers to the sound that a dog makes Physical similarity between the two 0 Culturally variable standards of resemblance o A wooden cross is a sign of the crucifixion of Jesus and the suffering that he went to Major points that Daniel wants to make an assertion that Tamils are different from us what39s the big difference Tamils engage in communication that makes use of indexical signs but us in the west make signs symbolic in nature Innermost nature of a person dharma kharma Daniel looks at how people understand themselves and each other Fundamental distinction between dispositional and man Danie fluid signs because your nature is variable and your life is obsessed with constant struggle to maintain your status Harper says everyone is concerned with avoiding pollution or remediating it Daniel is saying is what people are really concerned about is maintaining their identity Contrast these 2 approaches to everyday life how does one approach deal with divination of flowers vs the other approach Are they inconsistent and contradictory Or consistent and complimentary Maybe they are the same thing and using different words How do 3 frameworks help you to understand what tamils are thinking when throwing redwhite flowers on the ground Core hindu concepts Puja worship Transaction between humans and gods Moksa Mayasamsara Atmanbrahman Dharma Artha Kama Vidya Bhakti 52214 Houses Daniel points out they are very similar to persons They are metaphors have very similar structures When he talks about the similarities of a house amp person it39s not just the different parts of architecture it39s also the whole functioning of persons He talks about how one makes a house similar to how persons are conceived Teshi 9 deshi Kiraman gt graman Koundar 9 gounder Ur amp Kiraman Difference between an Ur and a graman A graman revenue village which is a taxation from the state The state puts circles around a number of villages and hamlets ceri or chen 0 There are fixed boundaries for revenue villages The dominant caste Ur may be surrounded by hamlets of untouchables Tamils do not have a boundary has an open ended frontier Boundaries are fixed by the state Frontiers are open ending variable changing Talk about them in terms of what is contained in a conceptual sphere Things in the center of this village are important and things which control entrances and exits Concerned where things are and where you actually go tocome from is not marked in anyone s conception When British took over and faced with issue of collecting taxes they would go out and tax a landlord who owns a lot of villages or they bypass and go down to the level of agriculturists called riots They want to know how much land the farmers are farming o Figure out how many Bigha s someone owns and how big is it o This determines how much you owe In the south they have a concept similar to bigha called a pangu share People who own a share in territory or share holders are called pangai s If you have a large family and give each a share of your land one year you have good rain and you water a lot of land Next year there39s a drought and you water a little land The number of shares your son gets remain the same but depends on how much land is there There is a variability of reference Val wants to talk about the difference of thinking in Tamilnad He39s looking just at villages Do villaqes exist Dumont says that they don39t exist He is a major player in the field historically O Says you have to understand marriage alliances and anything that doesn39t fits he disregards Trying to understand castes in Indian society he wants to say that primary thing is kinship When he looks at residence and territory he says that it39s not important Marriage relationships extend between villages Daniel claims there are 2 kinds of villages and maybe more 0 O 0 Daniel is saying that Dumont is full of it People talk about villages all the time Where is connection between Dumont amp Daniel39s view What is the name of the dominant caste of kulipur that Daniel is studying Vellalars of the 6 Nadu We have a caste that is dominant over a large area Daniel is looking at one segment of them Is this a representative sample of all Vellalars Acknowledges that we39re looking at a large area that extends outside the village Looks at the soil and sees differences between soil and persons Villages don39t only exist on the ground but they are also ideas in peoples heads This is where Rudner disagrees with Dumont ANV DominanceHistory Dispositions of ANV s to be crafty and business men What activates a disposition to make it manifest Contextual things Daniel missteps on a couple different places distinction between signifier and signified 0 pg 63 of fluid signs after meals rice harvested from the village and a drink of water when asking about the meaning of a village he is asking about the meaning of the word Distinguishing the word Ur person39s defined territory Graman symbolic bounded territory the difference is the context Ur is flexible something refers to district state country You know because of the context although on occasions it refers to multiple things 2 Ambiquity amp Variability of Indexical reference Depending on context and person meaning can be variable All cultures are indexical and symbolical Signifiersignified When ask for the boundaries of the Ur they get uneasy Each year the boundaries of the Ur changes Karai boundaries of a river can also talk about lineages 0 Used to talk about the boundaries of a Ur o The boundary changes from year to year The fact that it varies for Val means that it39s vague that there is no boundary A sign is a signifier that stands for a signified Can break down different signs in a variety of ways Can break down into iconindexsymbol 0 Icon similarity of context Eg walking man on crosswalk o Indexical refers to object because it39s connected to it A thermometer reading The column of mercury is indexical of temperature It is not iconic The length of the column of mercury caused by heat the hotter it is the more it lengthens in a confined space Caused by the temperature 0 Symbolic refers to object but no connection The connection is arbitrary 0 Daniel wants to say that signs use indexical signification in communicating with each other 2 Context sensitivity 2 Fluid boundaries Whether they are actual boundaries or relatively bounded 2 Person viaqe relationships amp dispositional properties of puttis and qunas 2 Settlement typoloqies and the flavors of personsamp villaqes Villages built with different flavors depending on the persons living there Differences between putti and gunan Gunans are part of your core essence It is difficult to change your gunan nature Dispositional properties and natures The world for building in tamil is a bounded space Different villages take different suffixes Week 10 Notes 6514 606 PM Basic unit of society is a caste known as a Jati Jati 9 clan 9 lineage 9 family Dumont establishes rank based on relative power not just muscle power but the king39s power Some castes or more pure or less pure more powerful or less powerful If you39re pure anyone can take food from you But you can39t take food from anyone Optimizing strategy they give but they don39t receive If you39re a Shudra you39re the most polluting so you can receive from anybody but you can39t give to anybody If you39re in an area with militant war crafts power is determined by the size of your army The larger army the more power you have If you39re looking at a market town there power is not determined by strength of arms and size of army it39s determined by the amount of money Want to maximize the money you have and minimize the amount of money you have to give to others Found that the warriors wanted to maximize all the transactions both giving and receiving Didn39t care if they became polluted By contrast the merchants wanted to keep their money so they minimized the number of people they exchanged with The south makes a distinction between high Shudras and low Shudras A Brahmin should not receive cooked food from Shudra But can receive uncooked food Maximizing and minimizing transaction Minimizers are happy to engage in maximum number of transactions with non pouting substances like money You want to minimize the transactions in the polluting substances 0 Won39t engage with cooked foods or inter marriages 0 Optimization and Pessimization Daniel says that it39s important to keep tract of the things being transacted with different people because it will affect who you are as a person With Tamils everything is much more fluid and open than we understand them to be in the west 0 Daniel says they live in fluid universe and we live in a fixed universe Equipoise oneness with the universe This is a sacred activity This is a Samskara a refinement of oneself to emerge you with god and become one with the universe talks about this is chapter 7 The first part of the book is concerned with everyday non sacred life Concern is to keep yourself separate from other things in the universe to make sure they don39t affect you Lack of equilibrium is manifested by a person being in a state of illness You don39t want to be unmarried A desired state entails equilibrium that is the outward manifestation of the core makeup of your gunam Daniel presents us with the origin myth of the universe as a whole Flower divination Gets a priest wrap up 6 packets of flowers 3 red3 white Throws them on the ground and asks a little girl to pick up one As a child she is not a conductor of pollution not even her own poHuHon She won39t affect the message from the gods The priests goes through rituals before he goes through this to become pure enough to become a god himself so he can interact with another god In a state of similar gunam makeup He throws the flowers the girl39s gunam won39t affect the flowers They open it up and even though this woman is unmarried therefore is cool the flower doesn39t come up white instead it comes up red on the first throw of the flowers That gets interpreted as signifying the girls inner gunam makeup Red is a hot color metaphorically referring to the hot gunam of the girl Why isn39t she married It39s in her nature to get married yet something is blocking it Is there anything that she39s done or can do You do another throw of the flowers If it comes up white that tells you on the second toss not about her gunam but that there39s an action Karman that can change her gunam Potential to change another manifestation of the gunam There39s a Karman that can catalyze that transformation If there39s another red throw may have to go for another 2 throws These tell the priestphysician on what39s going on with the girl Same thing could happen if someone had small pox unwanted hot toss If the first one comes out white his essence is cool Take the divination of flowers as a ritual Naranappa died physically his ghost and spirit was still around although his body was still dead This applies to divination of flowers in some way Pre imina liminal and post imina phase 0 He was referencing Turner Unmarried gir first throw is red If you have a hot gunam can be expressed as a hot person or cold person Depending on the interaction with your gene type it could be one or the other It will affect your humeral imbalance Humers are also dispositions but they are changeable If from birth you have a hot gunam context you may end up having a cold humeral complex Daniel talks about the Brahmins that move to the Vellalar complex and acquire hotter dosages than most Brahmins would have if living in a Brahmin village Interacts with their gunam to give them a hotter dosage Degree to which your dosage affects what goes on in the phenotypic expression 3 levels gunams humeral hotcold you can see the hotnesscoldness of a person is a symptom can treat them by adjusting a person39s humers what a physician might do if the problem is deeper than that if you39re born to be unmarried if you39re born to be hot then that39s a deeper problem you have to worship the gods this is where a priest comes in is it easy to fix Humeral balance Or more difficult inhibition of an unchanging balance Daniel talks about difference between diviners priests 6515 Daniel in the first part he talks about the mundane every day world The second part he looks at when you cross the mundane world into the world of the sacred Your goal is to find your way to heaven All of the varna and jati that make up the world of Samsara not Samskara are illusion You think that everything you come into contact with is different from you and everything else The purpose of going on a pilgrimage is to strip of the illusionary visions and realize you are one with the universe and you want to merge your soul with the universe as a whole Gaining knowledge seeing through illusion is the way that you get release from suffering Gaining this liberation is called Moksha That39s the purpose of the pilgrimage Different than what the people are pursuing in the everyday world They see that everyone is different Is an illusion but is real for a moment Those differences are constantly changing A person finds their place by understanding that he has a unique gunam or dharma and that this prescribes a certain way of acting in the world that39s appropriate The appropriate way of acting is the karma or kharman action that he should take 0 This is a concern for avoiding pollution because contact with people different from yourself will cause you to become polluted or the person you come in contact with to become poHuted o For Harper this is bad because people are aware of different kinds of person and requires people to worship the gods and intercede on their behave 0 Want to keep on the gods good side don39t want to get smallpox Daniel switches and says that sometimes you want to do more than equilibrate your outer essence Sometimes you want to escape and liberate yourself from that pursuit and attain Moksha and attain equipoise his word for Moksha He talks about that in great detail He draws on a whole host of very complicated philosophical topics Diff ways of analyzing flower ritual Dan proposes semiotic anaysis how do people understand they are exhibiting hotnesscoldness Daniel takes a look of Pierce s theory of signs and uses this to try to understand how the people are reading the signs A little diff from what harper does For him people aren39t reading signs to interpret what kind of action they should do They are following rules taught to them by priests and parents etc In contrast to rational choice mode people given a script and they follow it Not making a choice Don39t look only at harper look at Samskara and especially the afterward People become different people at one time they are child then teenager then adult married unmarried Whenever you go from one state to another there39s a tricky period when you39re neither one nor the other TURNER betwixt and between They creates a cognitive dissidence that Mary Douglas analyzed Bring all the readings to understand what39s going on in the fictional village and use that to bring harper s detailed analysis of all the taboos Use the other article to talk about how you can analyze a flower ritual with respect other analysis Harper behavior reproduce and produce society case society Interested in how conflict generates change in society Many societies reproduce themselves over time Turner ritual has the function they have a structure Separate you from your old status They transform you and incorporate you into a new status in society to reproduce society as a whole Can think about turner as a structural functionalist Different from Daniel semiotic approach doesn39t approach change of society Makes use of semiotic framework of pierce Analyze flower divination from both sides First part of paper talk about harper and second part of paper talk about Daniel and how he does it Harper did not analyze divination by flowers so you need to construct your own analysis of Harper In the novel Samskara when the hero is stuck because he doesn39t know what to do about Naranappa Burn him and form funeral rites What does he do He asks the monkey god what to do he performs a flower divination Is a little different than the one describes by Daniel He undergoes a series of rituals to undergo a heightened purity so he could interact with the god and ask the question Connection through Samskara 9 harper Can begin there and discuss rituals purity pollution Apply harper HW 3 and apply it to flower ritual Then compare to how Daniel does it And then say they39re the same with diff vocabularies or different things with different vocabularies Are they inconsistent and contradictory Does he say there are 3 different states you can enter depended on whether of not you have been impeded or cooled In diagnosing a hotcold state You want the soil that you build your house to be compatible with your essence so it doesn39t throw off your gunam Priest will enter a state of heightened purity less interested to Daniel than it is to harper 3 states described by Harper see the same thing with divination of flowers priests go under certain rituals before he throws down the flowers see some mechanics of purification understood through Daniel39s alternative analysis in his discussion about what he goes through in a pilgrimage can be seen as a process of purification Preparing to interact with the god When he starts talking about unification Daniel gets us back into more complicated philosophy then he was taking us in part 1 of the course Looks at turn of Pierce and says not only does pierce have a symbiotic theory he takes a look at Pierce s phenology For pierce the 2 are linked together We are looking at what Daniel did in moving from semiotics to Phenomenology Typically while in a state of thirdness you are using symbolic signs signs that stand in an arbitrary relationship that they signify make generalization of whole classes of events Differentiated word that we live is signified by symbiotic signs similar to indexical signs Smallpox has property of being hot red has property of being hot Flower divination red flower person39s gunam complex is hot like the flower You experience the quality of redness An index allows you to make an assertion about the quality if in the first throw you get a red flower you can39t say anything but in the second throw you get a white flower There39s a difference between white amp red Iconic similarity between flower throw and person39s health conditions As Daniel emphasizes it39s not the color flower persay as much as the difference between the first and second throw and the underlying gunam state of his real essence In a pilgrimage they want to move from a normal state On a pilgrimage trying to get rid of all the sings Mauss had a social evolutionary theory of the evolution of types of persons that coincided with standard of types of society savages barbarians Given a mask at birth and have to incorporate and internalize a mask As they become more civilized they become aware that they have control over a mask Irving Goffman focuses on the development of children from infancy childhood adolescence 9 childhood Kids get into role play they identify When you become mature you achieve a 3rd level Harper believes that pilgrimage is a process of purification allows inner most essence to break through When you reach equilibrium you want a nice harmonious mixture of your gunams and karmans but you still see them different in respect to other people Week 9 Notes 6514 608 PM 52714 Take 1 of the rituals that Daniel analyzes specifically flower divination in ch 5 and explain the analysis of how it works speculate about how Harper would have analyzed it We read about flower divination in Samskara Also in Daniel when he talks about conceiving a house 3 ex of flower divination ceremonies the one in great detail is in ch 5 do a comparison and contrast about what harper would have done and what Daniel actually did do and then focus on 3 different things These use different vocabularies have different kinds of goals Come up with translation that allows you to see if these 2 guys are talking about the same things or different things If they are different do they fit together or are they contradicting each other When you talk about flower divination talk about metaphors in how flower divination works External 9 internal perspective about how it39s like to be a person in Tamil Fear about being polluted and maintaining a level of purity for the people who produce wealth necessary to give to the gods to reciprocate the favor High status vellalar can function as Brahmins follow their strategies and ways of life You can worship gods in order to escape this world the world Samsara is all an illusion Point of worshipping is to achieve knowledge or Vidya to escape from ignorance that allows you to pierce the veil of illusion of Maya to see through Samsara Merge your individual soul with the universe this is called liberation Perform karma appropriate for dharma Harper would talk about this How would Daniel talk about this You would want to maintain a humeral balance You want to maintain a certain high level of heat If you get a cold it39ll make you metaphysically cold and in order to deal with that and get humeral balance to rise you may want to eat some high food All food classified as being hot or cold Daniel39s discussion of sex 5 auspicious fruits The hottest fruit of all papaya So hot that no woman should ever eat a papaya Only reason why would be because she wanted to heat up her womb because she had pregnancy out of wedlock so she wants abortion cooking the seed to induce an abortion May affect your state of pollution Danie maintain humeral equilibrium you don39t want to get too hotcold for yourself 2 different ways about talking about the same concerns harper doing some polluting activity so the priests don39t pollute it themselves work through life trying to convey right karma to satisfy dharma another way to get moksha which is bypassing everything bypass the priests and codes of conduct through shear force of devotion and love Daniel said it39s appropriate to do the action to your gunam Harper will talk about dharma Daniel talks about gunam Daniel talks about moksha quipoise and says it is temporary You engage in an act of devotion engage in exchange of love with the deity and emerge with him When you succeed then you39re there temporary or permanently If you purse Sanyasi you undergo a ritual funeral ceremony for yourself and cut off ties for everybody Differences in what the authors are looking at Are they talking about same things or different things Indexical signs are always context sensitive Depends on who39s speaking who the audience is and the occasion of the communication Tami s use symbolic signs and we use indexical signs Houses really emphasizes the metaphorical quality in which people use the idea of a person as a metaphor for houses Dealing with villages is relatively simple and houses get more complicated Daniel summarizes houses in 2 chapters of the book One place from pg 161162
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