Language and Ethnictiy
Language and Ethnictiy IAFF 2093
Popular in Africa: Problems and Promise
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Popular in International Affairs
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
Languages and Ethnicity News Boko Harm clashes with armies from Chad crossed border into Nigeria and chases book haram out of town Falling oil prices dramatically impacts Nigeria Two countries bene ting from oil price fall South Africa Morocco Ebola virus has mutated possibly less deadly but more contagious 3 UN protestors killed outside the UN base in Mali Release of child soldiers in south Sudan Egyptian police were citizen for shooting quotbird shotquot at protestors Attack on hotel in Tripoli Libya resulted in the killing of at least 9 people Including an American security contractor former marine Notes 2000 languages in Africa No one really knows how many Depends on how you de ne a language What about a dialect Slang How varied must it be to be a new language Want a sense of belonging in these disparage language groups Made dif cult through colonial rulers emphasizing divines Political leaders solicits tribal loyalty Emphasized tribalism quotFeel more comfortablequot Not seen as nepotism seen as securing authority and safety Cities Should be quotethnic mixing bowlsquot But you often nd ethnic enclaves Language culture traditions networking extended families etc Distribution of government patronage and competition for jobs also create enclaves Cameroon Anglophones the minority have to learn French to get around But the French do not have to learn English Anglophones in Cameroon feel like second class citizens At one point there was a movement to succeed from the country Professor doesn39t feel this is likely Africans identi ed rst by their ethnic group Creole Tempe or Mende D then as Sierra Leonean Thus civil war for ve years many Africans deal with coups in their government and therefrom do not feel like a citizens because they are being denied their rights Language and Ethnicity remain impediments to nationhood and democracy in Africa Ex Kenya uses English to promote democracy How successful is the Use of English in Building a Nation in Kenya Has played a positive role in creating a nationality Or at least a lingua franca Among the educated But how many get to a secondary education level Tanzania Swahili Every Tanzanian speak this Taught in the school system At a very early age Of cial language of the country Along with English Swahili is used more frequently Although university is in English What helps break down ethnicity and language barrier lntermarriage They would learn each other s language Or you pick one Somalia They are all Somali All speak Somali Mutually intelligible among all of them All Muslim But there exists clanssubgroups ex Hawaii Lots of clan politicscon ict since the breakdown of gov in 1991 Not all Africans identify with a single ethnic group but most do Harder with intermarriage The ethnic group is an easy way to mobilize people For access to resources Intermediaries who link the politicians and the powerful to their ethnic base for advancing their mutual interest Most Africans are farmers subsistent farmers or sometimes marginally productive farmer known as quotpeasantquot although not a derogatory term Just means small farmers Politically unorganized Depend on spokespersons to plead their interests those with ethnic intermediaries who live in urban areas Use a variety of formalinformal channels for accomplish goals either their own usually or those belonging to the voters Ethnic intermediaries guide the campaign for seeking state controlled resources that will bene t their constituencies clients Aka lobbyists So ethnic intermediaries will try to build unity within an ethnic group in order to achieve common interests Usually not looked at in terms of class only Marxist classify it as such Foreigners became the basis for uneven wealth and strati cation professor thinks he is overstating the importance of class African Trade Union Movement Weaker today than it was before Strength of trade unions varies across Africa They are extensions of the government Peasants have a low level of group consciousness despite their large numbers Peasants are predominantly women 70 of the subsistence agricultural workforce Libya Tribal con ict West vs east Sudan Agriculture vs pastoral Ethnicity in dafur Religions issue in the independence of sudan not the con ict in darfur because they were all muslim ProCon of inua franca Second Class citizenship Diminiuation of heritage Ef ciency Uni cation TribalismEthnicity will play a less important or more important role Language Ethnicity and Citizenship in Africa Citizenship civil rights the right to vote and social rights Owe allegiance to the state and is quotentitled to full civil rightsquot and p vHeges Each African government is preoccupied with how to forge a bond of belonging together as nationals of one state among the polytechnic group Tree are countries that have adopted a series of measures aiming at developing national integration and citizenship Aimed at instiing values of social responsibility in young people and developing concerned an active participants in ocanationainternationa life In the tribe national like the tribalismnationalism dichotomy there is the shared premise of attachment to one s groups which is preferred to an outside group quotKenya39s President Daniel Aru Moi calls it tribalism the cancer that threatens to eat out the very fabric of our nation Yet almost every African politician practices it most African presidents are more tribal chiefs than national statesmen and it remains perhaps the most potent force in daytoday African lifequot Language refers to the dissemination no information Nan may include systematic instruction that is undertaken in formal education institutions Language is the foundation of education Programs targeting the masses are best delivered in indigenous languages rather than second or foreign tongues The characters of selfprescription and ascription by others become so the curia feature when an ethnic group is perceived as a social organization Based on a social de nition Interplay of own selfde nition other group members categorization and stereotyping Uganda Example of a leader acting off of tribalism President Idi Amin of Uganda this is who Somoza was compared to after the death of Bobby Stuart from ABC in Nicaragua Language has been identi ed as the factor the determines ethnicity Language can be used as the medium of assimilating members in a nation state inhabited by heterogeneous groups But it can also cause backlash Ex 1976 Soweto riots in which 1000 kids were massacred because the state tried to increase Afrikaans at the language of instruction Nat the primary level in South Africa to the detriment of English 1961 Cameroon adopted French and English has their official languages making this 5 central African stat ether only bilingual country in black Africa English is predominant but spoken by 15 of the population Feel second class to French speakers The struggle for independence in Africa was association with panAfricanism However they do not identify as one quotAfricaquot Ex Sierra Leone coups Constantly in turmoil Coup in 1997 Ahmad Kasbah the rst democratically elected president was ousted by an army major Ex House Fulani Yoruba and lbo of Nigeria lbo were favored by the British So lbo took over at Independence in 1960 Alliance with northern Hausa against Yoruba Break down of government Ethnicity Class and the State Ethnicity and Ethnic Group Ethnicity subjective perception of common origins historical memories ties and aspirations Ethnic group pertains to organized actives y persons linked by a consciousness of a special identity who jointly seek to maximize their corporate political economic and social interests Ethnic groups may engage in social interactions with other organized units of society An awareness of the group as a distinct entity in relationship to other cultural groups remains a relatively recent phenomenon Colonial government encouraged the integration of autonomous sections living side by side in order to consolidate territory and identity groups
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