Climate Change and Women in Africa
Climate Change and Women in Africa IAFF 2093
Popular in Africa: Problems and Promise
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Popular in International Affairs
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2093 at George Washington University taught by Shinn in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Africa: Problems and Promise in International Affairs at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
Climate Change in Africa Deforestation in Africa Cut down of trees brush and scrub And do not replant Why cut down Energy by burning wood Ex cooking res Building houses Logging Rainforest on the continent are expected to disappear in 25 years Unless government intercede Each year Africa loses woodlands about the size of the Netherlands High rates of urbanization only increase pressure to cut trees Most commonly seen in urban areas Example of deforestation Ethiopia Trying to reforest now Very expensive And lengthy wait time Deforestation also comes from con ict and refugee movement think back to Rwandan and Sudanese refugees as they made their way to refugee camps had to travel through forest for protection but cut down what was in their path Rwandan refugees would make camp and stay there for monthsyears and cut down everything near them for energy Consequences Land degradation Loss of food production Loss of wildlife habitat Loss of tourism Loss of trees and watersheds means an excess of sediments and containments Clogs the rivers Pollutes the lake Puts stress on the lake Deserti cation Deserti cation The conversion of productive land into waste land by human mismanagement Also climate change Deforestation can lead to deserti cation 23 of Africa is desert or dry land Mostly dry land Includes part of Senegal Niger northern Nigeria Uganda Chad Gambia quotZonequot Many people claim that Africa is under populated Because of low population density BUT 80 of the content is not suitable for producing crops arable Which means that it may be overpopulated for the resources Africa can provide Vast unsettled parts of Africa Cannot sustain settlement SOMETIMES increased irrigation can be a solution Irrigation Expensive Pumps and fuels Excessive irrigation in hot dry climates leads to alkelinizations of crops Too much salt Too much alkaline In the irrigation canals Eventually overwhelms the crops Sometimes you have to sues the scarce water to us away the slats and alkaline If you use irrigation you have to use more fertilizer and pesticides Toxic waste to the environment Also another expense Drought Natural Ex El nine Human Ex deforestation Africa is the most vulnerable and the last able to adapt to climate change Some areas where they get rain will get more rain And areas with too little rain will get les strain Areas in Africa are expected to get much hotter More drought Consequences of Climate change More droughts More oods All of greater intensity More epidemics Fever Soil Erosion Closely linked to the problem of deforestation Africa39s old age and location in net tropics makes it more vulnerable to deforestation Deforestation expedites the process of deforestation Constantly eroded by rain Cultivation becomes dif cult HOWEVER Soil erosion aides the Nile Delta As it rushes from the mountains hills nearby Soil lls up Lake Nasser now Used to ow straight through the lake Nasser to the Nile Delta and provide great agricultural condition Now the Nile Delta is shrinking Population continues to grow Puts strain on all this Cash Crops Primary source of exchange Production has led to misguided government policies Lead to environment deterioration Ex Government of Sudan ignored dryand farming after investing in cotton and sugar plantation along the Nile The Blue Nile ows into Sudan and meets thaw white noel at Khartoum Used to have lots of agriculture there But the irrigation system was left South Sudan has 75 of the oil So now Sudan has to go back to doing good agriculture Animal poaching also an issue Biggest problem is the people invading the animal39s space Ex Ugandan soldiers were allowed to go shooting in the forest and clear space for camps Africa is only responsible for 3 of the world39s largest C02 emissions 16 for China 13 for US Glaciers On mount Kilimanjaro are disappearing 85 of the icecap there in 1912 is gone Disappearing at 2 a year Citizens with grievances against the government can use disasters caused by climate change as ways to rally against the government 1 Geographic location to climate related hazards 2 Population density 3 Household and community resilience 4 Political violence Chart 150 Map on 152 Western Ethiopia southern Sudan Angola South Sudan DRC and Somalia Drought Floods Wild res High winds Coastal inundation Lake Taganeka 2nCI largest by volume of water Lake Chad ls half the size it was when Nigeria became independent Nigeria Chad and Cameroon used to all bene t from this lake 30 million people depend on Lake Chad for water But will disappear in 20 years 12 of the loss of Lake Chad is due to climate change 12 of the loss is due to human interference Women in Africa Precolonial Africa Male dominance Bride wealth The male39s family would pay for the wife For the variety of tasks she performs She can createsell goods She raises children She tends the home Polygamy for the male was common Colonials Forced males into the commercial economy Mines Plantations Townes Women remained the rural areas And assumed the responsibilities that men used to have Men gained access to resources Land Money Educa on Not available to women Men also gained political advantages All male native authorities Made by colonizers Colonial ruler interpreted African tradition in ways that favored men over women Women39s responsibilities grew But their rights to land were undermined The best land was given to the land For the growing of cash crops Legal dif culties lf divorced the woman had no right to the wealth PostColonial Period Independent African states and social institutions tend to be Africanized replicas of their colonial predecessors Advantages that men had gained access to education job and property allowed them to gain control of the most of the wealth job and leadership positions in newly independent countries Men kept formal political power Continued doing as they had done under the chieftain system Today Women do not have guaranteed rights to their husband39s income or property Changes in this applies to urban more than rural areas May be linked to education Urban women have more education Women do 90 of the agricultural work for the food you eat everyday But men do the farm work that requires the most physical strength You will nd me and women working together in the elds but you will nd more women there then men Women are increasingly seeking employment in towns But they have had less training Poses an issue Illiteracy is much higher in women than men Boys are sent to school more often than girls More dif cult for women to nd wage paying jobs Midwives Clerks Secretaries Teachers like the US in the 1940s and 19505 However women have been successful in running small private businesses In the informal economy Large role of African women in development Political Of ces Mostly excluded form political of ce Until president in Liberia And VP in Malawi that assumed presidency And previously women only held 68 of parliament seats Even today it is above 15 in only 13 African countries Half of African states 2005 there were no women in cabinet positions Although they did better in local governments Political leadership is male preserved Cultural Educa on Female Genital Mutilation Long history Ethiopia has had a signi cant program to eliminate this issue Trying to educate the populous on the dangers of FGM FGM is legally outlawed Because it is deeply culturally embedded Law Reliance on local law Or sharia law On areas of divorce custody and education Gives men power over women Some places have constituency that prohibit traditional practices harmful to women However legal reforms are poorly enforced and customary law takes precedence over formal law Women39s representation in parliament in South Africa is near 45 Women are contributing increasingly to the formal sector but still most activity yin the informal sector because they live in the rural areas Governments must play a more active role Market forces will not solve the gender parity