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Date Created: 04/15/14
April 14 2014 Perceiving in the mind Lecture Notes Sensation O Stimulusdetection process Perception 0 Making quotsensequot of what our sense tell us Sensation TO perception 1 Stimulus is received by sensory receptors 2 Receptors translate stimulus properties into nerve im pulses transduction i Converting the characteristics of a stimulus into nerve impulses 3 Feature detectors analyze features 4 Stimulus features are reconstructed into neural representation 5 Neural representation is compared with previously stored information In bran 6 Matching process results in recognition and interpretation of stimulus Psychophysics 0 Studies relations between the physical characterizes of stimuli and sensory capabilities Stimulus Detection O O O O O 0 Absolute threshold I The lower the threshold the higher the sensitivity Decision criterion I How certain a person must be that a stimulus is present before they will say they detect it Signal detection theory Difference threshold I Smallest difference between two stimuli that people can perceive 50 of the time I Just the noticeable difference JND Weber39s Law Subliminal stimulus I Is one that is so weak or brief that although it is received by the sense it cannot be perceived consciously I Subliminal persuasion is rarely effective in producing large scale changes in our attitudes Sensory organization 0 Sensory adaptation I diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus Psych 101 Page 1 Chapter 5 Relevant Vocabulary Sensation o The stimulus detection process by which our sense organ s respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulse that are set to the brain Perception 0 Making quotsensequot of what our sense tell us is the active process of organizing this stimulus input and giving it meaning Transduction 0 Is the process whereby the characteristics of a stimulus are converted into the nerve impulses Absolute threshold o As the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50 percent of the time Decision criterion 0 A standard of how certain they must be that a stimulus is present before they will say they detect it Signal detection theory 0 Is concerned with the factors that influence sensory judgments Difference threshold o The smallest difference between two stimuli that people can perceive 50 of the time uses Weber39s law Sensory adaptation 0 The diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus Weber39s Law o Difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the comparison stimulus with which the comparison is being made Subliminal stimulus I Is one that is so weak or brief that although it is received by the sense it cannot be perceived consciously Eye 0 Cornea I Transparent protective structure at the front of the eye 0 Pupil I Adjustable opening that can dilate or constrict to control the amount of light that enters the eye 0 Iris I Colored Surround the pupil bright light makes the pupil constrict o Lens I An elastic structure that becomes thinner to focus on distant objects and thicker to focus 0 Retina I A multilayer lightsensitive tissue at rear of the fluid filled eyeball o Rods I Function best in dim light are primarily black and white brightness receptors 0 Cones I Color receptors function best in bright illumination 0 Fovea I A small area in the center of the retina that contains no rods but many densely packed cones o Optic nerve I Gaglion cells whose axons are collected into a bundle o Visual acuity I Ability to see fine detail o Photo pigments I Rods and cones translate light waves into nerve impulses through the action of protein molecules o Trichromatic theory I There are 3 types of color receptors in the retina o Opponent theory I Proposed that each of the three cone types respond to two different wavelengths o Dual process theory I Combines the trichromatic and opponentprocess theories to account for the color transduction process o Trichromats I People with normal color vision Feature detectors I Fire selectively in response to visual stimuli that have specific characteristics Audition o Frequency I Number of sound waves or cycles per second I Hertz III Technical measure of cycles per second III The higher the Hertz the higher the perceived pitch o Amplitude I Refers to vertical size of the sound waves amp Is perceived loudness expressed in Db decibels o 3 small bones in ear I Hammer malleus I Anvil incus I Stirrup stapes o Cochela I A coiled snailshaped tube about 35 cm that is filled with fluid that contains BASILAR MEMBRANE o Place theory of pitch perception I Suggesting that the specific point in the cochlea where the fluid wave peaks and most strongly bends the hair cells serves as a frequency coding cue o Conduction deafness I Involves problems with the mechanical system that transmits sound waves to the cochlea o Nerve deafness I Caused by damaged receptors within the inner ear or ear damage to the auditory nerve itself Taste and Smell o Gustation I The sense of taste o Taste buds I Chemical receptors concentrated along tip edges and back surface of tongue o Olfaction I The sense of smell o Olfactory bulb O Psych 101 Page 2 I A forebrain structure immediately above the nasal cavity o Pheromones I Chemical signals found in natural body scents o Tactical sensations I Humans are sensitive to pressure pain warmth and cold o Unami I A taste sensation that increases the intensity of other taste qualities Pain o Gate control theory I Proposes that the experience of pain results from the opening and closing of gating mechanisms in the nervous system o Endorphins I Natural opiates I They exert painkilling effects by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters involved in the synaptic transmission of pain impulses from the spinal cord to the brain Psych 101 Page 3
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