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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Katie Hartman on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Reader belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 69 views.
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Date Created: 02/22/15
Influences on the Adjustment to pregnancy 0 whether the pregnancy was planned 0 whether spousefather is in the picture 0 socioeconomic status of the parents Planning and Preparing 23 months ahead 0 discuss plans with doctor or OBGYN have a physical PAP STD tests breast exam blood pressure etc discuss when to stop hormonal birth control and how long to wait before trying discuss when to start taking prenatal vitamins start at a healthy weight eathea hy exercise avoid teratogens alcohol tobacco drugs PreConception Ovulation o for conception intercourse must happen 12 days before ovulation o ovulationrelease of a mature egg viable for 1224 hours 0 egg moves through fallopian tube and must be fertilized before it moves too far through the tubes Conception Fertilization Happens in fallopian tube sperm swarm around the egg enzyme weakens outer layer of egg one sperm gets in talk drops off outer layer becomes impermeable Conception Prelmplantation o fertilized egg divides as it moves through fallopian tube zygote 0 become a blastocyst bollow ball 100 cells 0 outer layer will become placenta o inner layer will form the embryo Conception Implantation 0 6th day 1 week gestation o outer layer attaches to endometrium spongy lining of the uterus o grows long projections into the wall first step in developing placenta with blood vessels linking mother and baby Unsuccessful pregnancies 20 fertilized eggs are lost in week 1 33 lost during week 2 a few more can be lost in the 2 4 weeks that follow only about 3740 of blastocysts survive to become live infants some couples wait to announce pregnancy until after the first trimester lntense Hormone Changes Estrogen rises causing morning sickness prolactin 0 blood sugar metabolizes quickly 0 breasts enlarge and prepare for nursing relaxin causes joints and ligaments in pelvis to relax and hips to broaden Symptoms of Pregnancy All Hormonal fatigue insomnia mood swings swelling feet ankles fingers face tenderness and swelling of breasts frequent urination vaginal discharge morning sickness missed menstrual period Prenatal Care very important for early detection of problems when moms don t get prenatal care 0 babies 3x more likely to need intensive care in 1st year 0 5x more likely to die within 1st year make 1st appt immediately regular doctor appts take partner when possible weight gain fundal height blood pressure urinalysis fetal heartbeat keep a notebook ask questions Prenatal Testing can test for 400 conditions during pregnancy 9697 of babies are perfect no problems approx 2030 of problems in newborns are genetic o something went wrong in cell division 0 chromosomal or gene abnormalities o AFP test Alpha fetoprotein test mother s blood 0 too high malformation of brain or spinal cord 0 too low downs syndrome 0 Ultrasound to look for abnormalities of baby 0 heart and other organs 0 location of placenta Invasive prenatal testing 0 amniocentesis large needle to take cells from amniotic fluid 0 down s syndrome 0 spina bifida o CVS Chorionic Villus sampling 0 villus shares baby s genetic makeup o cystic fibrosis Age related complications TEENS O in 2012 30 of American girls under age 20 got pregnant 40 of premature babies are born to mothers who are teens babies of teen moms are 10x more likely to grow up in poverty than babies of mothers over20 teen moms are less likely to get early prenatal care moms under 20 amp their have significantly higher health risks than moms over 20 teen mother s bodies are still developing teens don t often take very good care of themselves exercise nutrition sleep smoking etc Age related complications mothers over 35 higher risk for miscarriage high blood pressure preeclampsia diabetes longer harder labor needing a cesarean birth 0 O O O O 0 babies with chromosomal abnormalities Symptoms to worry about possible signs of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy 0 Bleeding at any time spotting o abdominal or back pain 0 cramping like menstrual cramps extreme swelling of feet and ankles possible toxemia gaining too much weight too fast gt35lbs not gaining enough weight need to gain at least 20lbs premature labor Miscarriage spontaneous abortion the fetus dies and passes from the mother s body most ofter is a problem with the product of conception something wrong with the fetus and cannot survive past this point sometimes caused by mother s hormonal imbalance sometimes caused by physical problem with mother Multiple births most born prematurely not enough space gt 3 babies 25 chance each child will have severe disabilities may be slower to develop than full term similar complications as premature babies Premature Birth Low birth weight about 10 of babies are born before 37 weeks up to 80 of newborns who die within 1st 4 weeks die because of bow birth weight lt 45 lbs 24 weeks cutoff for viability likely to survive at 35 wks 1 month early baby s brain is only 23 the size it will be at full term 0 lots of brain development happens in that last month premature babies do not yet have normal reflexes like sucking often have to be tubefed premature babies have difficulty maintaining body temperature Causes of prematurity 40 of the time cause is unknown infection in mother or baby problem with placenta overstretching of uterus multiple babies excessive fluid very large baby very large placenta 0000 Warning signs of premature labor contractions which are regular and less than 10 min apart leaking blood or fluid from the vagina pelvic pressure a feeling like baby is pushing down low dull backache cramping with or without diarrhea To prevent or postpone premature birth bed rest gravity fluids prevent dehydration laborinhibiting hormones to help protect baby steroids given to mother 0 will cross placenta to baby for lung development Factors that determine survival chances gestational age at birth weight presence or absence of breathing trouble presence or absence of congenital abnormalities presence or absence of infection in mother rupture of amniotic membranes sex of child females have higher chance mother s diabetes mother s high blood pressure Induction of labor a pregnant woman is induced when her baby would be better off outside her body 1020 of labors are induced When induction is necessary placenta has started to come loose infection of the amniotic membranes fetus has died and has not been expelled from mother s body mom s health puts her and baby at risk baby is overdue baby s growth is restricted or not normal rate amniotic membranes have ruptured When induction should NOT be done mom has had previous cesarean birth baby isn t in a good position sideways or breech mom is carrying twins or more when placenta is partially or totally covering the cervix placenta previa Methods of induction lV hormone drip most common by ripening the cervix with a hormone a gel or a wafer by rupturing the amniotic membranes by stripping the membranes
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