Lectures 14-17 Outline
Lectures 14-17 Outline Bio 1023
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Thursday April 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/21/16
PLANTS & HUMANS LECTURES 14, 16 AND 17 Lecture 14 Natural Selection: Biological Evolution: Heritable change in one or more characteristics of a population from generation to generation Small scale changes in a single gene Large scale formation of a new species or groups of species Species o Group of related organisms that share a distinctive form o Among those that reproduce sexually Population o Members of the same species that encounter each other and have the opportunity to interbreed Charles Darwin: British naturalist born 1809 Theory shaped by several different fields of study o Geology o Economics o Voyage of the Beagle Descent with Modification: Variation within a given species Traits heritable passed from parent to parent to offspring Genetic basis not yet known Natural Selection: More offspring produced than can survive Competition for limited resources Individual with better traits flourish and reproduce adaption Selective Breeding: Also called Artificial Selection Programs and procedures designed to modify traits in domesticated species Nature chooses parents in natural selection while breeders choose in artificial selection Made possible by genetic variation Breeders choose desirable phenotypes and breed for them Evolution at Genome Level: Involves changes in chromosome structure and number Compare 3 largest chromosomes in humans and apes Similar due to close evolutionary in humans and apes PLANTS & HUMANS LECTURES 14, 16 AND 17 Lecture 16 Ecology and Biomes: Introduction: Ecology Study of interactions between organisms and their environment Biotic Interactions Interactions among living things Abiotic Interactions Interactions between organisms and their nonliving environment Population Ecology Focuses on groups of interbreeding individuals Community Ecology Studies how populations of species interact and form communities Ecosystem Ecology Studies the flow of energy and cycling of chemical elements among organisms within a community and between organisms and the environment Scale of Ecology: 2 subdisciplines o Physiological Ecology how organisms are physiologically adapted to their environment o Behavioral Ecology how the behavior of an individual organism contributes to survival and reproductive success Biomes: Terrestrial biomes classified according to physical factors Tropical Rain Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Coniferous Forest Temperate Grassland Hot Desert Tundra Aquatic Biomes such as… Intertidal Zone Open Ocean Wetlands Understanding Populations: Density of how it is quantified Dispersion Reproductive strategies Age classes Density Number of organisms in a given area Visual Survey Sampling Extrapolate population size from number of captured individuals PLANTS & HUMANS LECTURES 14, 16 AND 17 Community Ecology: Studies how populations of species interact and form communities Why some species are rich and some are poor Succession how species composition and community structure change over time, after a disturbance Community assemblage of many populations that live in that same place at the same time Can occur on a wide variety of scales and can be nested Patterns of Species Richness: Species Richness number of species in each community Varies by geographic range Succession: Gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure over time Primary Succession succession on a newly exposed site not previously occupied by soil and vegetation Secondary Succession succession on a site that has already supported life by that has undergone a disturbance, such as fire, tornado, hurricane or flood Mechanisms of Succession: Facilitation colonizing species change the environment so that it becomes more suitable for subsequent species 58.6 Island Biogeography: Study of succession on islands Lecture 17 Biodiversity and Conservation: Introduction: Biodiversity can be examined at three levels Genetic Diversity amount of genetic variation within and between populations Species Diversity number of species in a community Ecosystem Diversity diversity of structure and function within an ecosystem Conservation biology seeks to protect biological diversity at all levels Why We Conserve Biodiversity: Humans depend on plants, animals, and microorganisms for food, medicine, and industrial products Preserve essential services of ecosystems, such as clean air and water Ethical responsibility PLANTS & HUMANS LECTURES 14, 16 AND 17 Economic Value: Zea Diplopernnis ancient corn Resistant to many corn viruses and its genes are being used to develop resistant corn Desert pupfishes are models for research on human kidney disease World’s ecosystem worth more than 33 trillion a year Loss of Biodiversity: Extinction is a natural process Background extinction rate Biodiversity crisis, last 100 years Growth of human population linked to many extinctions Causes of Extinction (Human Induced): Species moved by humans from native location to another Invasive Species outcompete native species for space and resources Competition, Predation, Disease Direct Exploitation Habitat Destruction Climate Change Loss of Genetic Diversity inbreeding for example Conservation Strategies: Habitat conservation focuses on 3 things Mega diversity Countries countries with the greatest number of species Areas rich in endemic species Representative habitats Indicator species species whose status confirms the overall health of an ecosystem Umbrella species habitat requirements so large that protecting them also protects other species in the same habitat Flagship species large or instantly recognizable species Keystone species species within a community that have a large effect in a community beyond it’s level of abundance Complete restoration attempt to put back exactly what was there prior to disturbance Habitat Restoration: Rehabilitation return habitat to something similar but less than full restoration Ecosystem replacement replace original ecosystem with different one Captive Breeding: Breeding of animals and plants to produce stock for release into the wild PLANTS & HUMANS LECTURES 14, 16 AND 17
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