Operations of the Criminal Justice System
Operations of the Criminal Justice System CJ100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Raby on Sunday February 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Klutz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Sociology 101 Study Guide Sociology is the systematic and scienti c study of human social life Sociologists study people as they form groups and interact with one another The groups they study may be small such as married couples or large such as a subculture of suburban teenagers Sociology places special emphasis on studying societies both as individual entities and as elements of a global perspective Auguste Comte 1798 1857 widely considered the quotfather of sociologyquot became interested in studying society because of the changes that took place as a result of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution He decided an entirely new science was needed He called this new science sociology which comes from the root word socus a Latin word that means companion or quotbeing with othersquot The scienti c method is the use of systematic and speci c procedures to test theories in psychology the natural sciences and other elds Positivism which is the application of the scienti c method to the analysis of society The rst department of sociology opened at McGill University in Montreal Canada in 1922 followed by sociology departments at Harvard University in 1930 and at the University of California at Berkeley in the 19505 Types of Sociology The two major types of sociology that emerged were qualitative sociology and quantitative sociology 0 At the University of Chicago Albion Small 1854 1926 developed qualitative sociology Qualitative sociology is concerned mainly with trying to obtain an accurate picture of a group and how it operates in the world 0 Today qualitative sociology emphasizes understanding individuals experiences by examining their books television programs interactions and ceremonies among other elements 0 For example a sociologist hoping to understand the experiences of emergency medical technicians EMTs might spend time riding in the backs of ambulances as the EMTs go out on calls 0 Quantitative sociology relies on statistical analysis to understand experiences and trends Social sciences concern people s relationships and interactions with one another Sociology with its emphasis on social life falls into this category A multidisciplinary eld sociology draws from a variety of other social sciences including anthropology political science psychology and economics Anthropology concerns individual cultures in a society rather than the society as a whole Traditionally it focuses on what might be termed primitive cultures Anthropologists place special emphasis on language kinship patterns and cultural artifacts Political science concerns the governments of various societies It considers what kind of government a society has how it formed and how individuals attain positions of power within a particular government Political science also concerns the relation of people in a society to whatever form of government they have Psychologists study the human brain and how it functions considering issues such as memory dreams learning and perception Psychology takes the individual out of his or her social circumstances and examines the mental processes that occur within that person Economists study why a society chooses to produce what it does how money is exchanged and how people interact and cooperate to produce goods Economics focuses on the production and distribution of society s goods and services Social WelfarePeople with training in sociology pursue a variety of different career and research paths Because society is such a broad eld of study a background in sociology helps support dozens of different career choices They study problems such as poverty prejudice and world hunger and attempt to nd solutions Crime and Deviancesociologists who focus their research on understanding the roots of criminal and deviant behavior Sociologists who focus on crime and deviance may conduct studies of juvenile delinquents female criminals or other subgroups of offenders Some sociologists apply their knowledge to the eld of healthcare An understanding of changing demographics and culture is essential for keeping members of a society healthy Maintaining good relations with other societies is always important Sociologists who specialize in international relations must understand the intricacies of how their society interacts with others Many people study sociology because they want to develop more effective ways to educate a society s youth or because they want to continue learning and teaching about sociology itself CultureThat complex whole that includes knowledge beliefs arts morals laws customs and any other habits and capabilities acquired by human beings as members of society Culture refers to all those ways of thinking feeling and behaving that are socially transmitted from one generation to the next Culture Relativismevery culture must be quotjudgedquot by its own cultural in criteria because standard of right and wrong and good and bad are relative to the cultural context within which they appear Ethical Absolutismis the belief that there exist universal circumstances that are always good and always bad for human beings Subculturea small within a larger culture Subcultures share in the dominant culture but also have a unique and distinctive set of attitudes values and behaviors that differ in varying degrees from the quotdominantquot culture and from other subcultures within the culture Examples of Subcultures in the US Regional South North East West Midwest Occupational Truck Drivers Farmers Lawyer Age Youth Senior Citizens Homosexuals Gay Social Class Middle Class Poor Rich o Instinctsa genetically transmitted complex behavioral pattern which occurs through out an entire species 0 Example The Migration behavior of Monarch butter ies o Drivesan internal not learned force or compulsion which motivates individuals to engage in behaviors which will reduce the need generated by the drive A drive will result in a rather generalized behavior and the exact behavioral response to the drive will vary considerably among various individuals and various individuals and various cultures Examples 0 Sex and Hunger Human Beings do not have instincts Socialization o Socializationthe process through which the individual acquires culture knowledge value etc The socialization process is the way through which an individual learns as a result of interaction w the environment 0 Deliberate Socializationrefers to the socialization process when there exists a deliberate and purposeful intent to convey values attitudes knowledge skill etc culture Examples of Deliberate Socialization Schools ua on 0 Parents telling a child to always say quotpleasequot Charles Horton Cooley39s Theoryquot The LookingGlass Self quot 0 The behavior of others toward him is the mirror in which the individual sees himself George Herbert Mead39s Theory of Personality 0 Personality develops as a result of socialization which takes place via social interaction 0 An individual must be able to step outside of them selves and see themselves front he view of others M William Graham Sumner 18401910 0 Sumner was one of the first Americans to teach sociology in a major university Yale He published quotFolkwaysquot in 1906 which sought to describe the origins of social normsquot Norms 0 Standards or guides for behavior Norm specify behavioral expectations by defining what are correct and incorrect ways of responding to situations William Graham Sumner Classified Norms into 3 Major Types a Folkways are relatively weak norms which are only mildly enforced in a society Not against the law Example of Folkways 1 Correct manners 2 Appropriate dress 3 Proper eating behavior b Mores are the strong and important norms of a society Violation of mores will evoke severe punishment Against the law most of the time Example of Mores 1 Bigamy 2 Incest 3 Cannibalism c Laws are norms which are designed maintained and enforced by the political authority of a society Examples of Violations of Laws 1 Speeding 2 Cheating on Income Tax 3 Murder Reasons for Conformity to Norms a Indoctrination being told over and over to do something the quotrightquot way b Habituation doing something the same way over and over again c Practicality other members of society know in advance what your behavior will be d Desire for approval other members of society will approve of your behavior because you are doing the quotright thingquot 0 Ethnocentrism SumnerIs the view of things in which one39s own group is the center of everything and all others are viewed with reference to it Each group looks upon its ways of doing things as being the best and natural and better than all others