Nutrition for Health
Nutrition for Health
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This 7 page Reader was uploaded by Brittnee Zuckerman on Tuesday April 15, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 167 views.
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Date Created: 04/15/14
ESS 3 NUTRITION FOR HEALTH Spring Quarter 2014 47 The Esophagus Muscular tube of the GI tract connecting the back of the mouth to the stomach where swallowing takes place Swallowing complex process where the brain sends signals to close off the epiglottis windpipe to avoid choking Food enters the esophagus which propels food toward the stomach by contracting two sets of muscles called Peristalsis waves of squeezing and pushing contractions that move food in one direction in the length of the GI tract The Stomach A shaped organ where food is partially digested churned and stored until released into the small intestine The stomach prepares chemical digestion by secreting gastric juice acidic liquid secreted by the stomach that contains hydrochloric acid peptin and other chemicals Stomach performs mechanical digestion by mixing and churning the food until it becomes Chyme a semi uid mass consisting of partially digested good water and gastric juices The stomach can store several cups of food until the small intestine is ready for it about 2 hours Small Intestine Most digestion and absorption occurs in the small intestine Food is broken down into molecules that the body can absorb It is the longest portion of the GI tract composed of 3 sections 0 Duodenum connected via the pyloric sphincter to the stomach 0 Iejunum middle portion of the small intestine 0 Ileum the last portion connected to the large intestine at the olecocecal valve Accessory Organs These organs assist digestion but are not part of the GI tract 1 Gallbladder a sac of tissue beneath the liver that stores bile and secretes it into the small intestine Bile uid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that emulsifies fats in the small intestine 2 Pancreas a gland located behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes Small Intestine Absorption The lining of the small intestine has folds with finger like projections called villi that trap nutrient molecules and absorb nutrients into the capillaries Vitamins do not need to be broken down and are small enough to be absorbed Water is absorbed along the entire length of the GI tract because it can pass through the cell membrane Nutrient Transport 2 main uids that transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body 1 Blood travels through the GI tract and picks up nutrients that were absorbed 2 The villi of the small intestine carries them to the liver for processing Waste products are filtered and excreted by the kidneys 3 Lymphatic vessels pick up most fats and fat soluble vitamins and transport them in lymph These nutrients eventually enter the bloodstream at an area near the heart where the lymphatic and blood vessels join together The Liver The largest organ of the GI tract and one of the most important organs of the body Its functions include production of bile and processing of nutrient rich blood from the small intestine Liver is the largest digestive organ and one of the most important organs in the body performing more than 500 different functions One function is to receive the products of digestion and then release into the bloodstream those nutrients needed throughout the body The liver plays a major role in processing storing and regulating the blood levels of the energy nutrients Alcohol and Other Drugs Liver functions to filter the blood from toxins alcohol and other drugs The liver can filter the blood of alcohol at the rate of approx 1 drink per hour When someone exceeds this rate the liver becomes overwhelmed and cells are damaged Chronic alcohol abuse forms scar tissue which blocks blood ow through the liver which can lead to confusion coma and death The Large Intestine The large intestine is a think tube like structure that frames the small intestine Intestinal bacteria digest any remaining food particles Water and chemicals are absorbed into the bloodstream Non digestible matter forms feces which are excreted through the rectum Disorders related to digestion absorption and elimination Gastroesophageal Re ux Disease a painful type of gastroesophageal re ux that occurs more than twice per week It occurs when the hydrochloric acid seeps into esophagus and burns it causing a painful sensation in the center of the chest Peptic Ulcer an area of the GI tract that has been eroded away by the acidic gastric juice of the stomach 0 Usually located in the stomach causes a burning pain in the abdominal area 0 2 main causes H phylori infection cured with antibiotic and use of nonsteroidal anti in ammatory drugs Specific Food Disorders Food intolerances a cluster of GI symptoms that occurs following consumption of a particular food but is not caused by an immune system response Usually transient caused by insufficient quantities of enzymes Food allergy an in ammatory reaction caused by an immune system hypersensitivity to a protein component of a food Symptoms limited or body wide in ammation Can be serious 150 Americans die each day due to allergic reactions to food Celiac Disease a genetic disorder characterized by an inability to absorb a protein called gluten This causes an in ammatory immune response that damages the lining of the small intestine Gluten is found in wheat rye and barley Irritable bowel syndrome a bowel disorder that interferes with normal functions of the colon IBS causes abdominal cramps bloating and constipation or diarrhea 16 Americans have symptoms of IBS Some people39s food moves too quickly through the colon and uid cannot be absorbed Diarrhea Probiotics are live microorganisms found in fermented milk products such as yogurt Probiotics mean pro life The bacteria adhere to the intestinal wall for a few days exerting bene cial actions 0 Increase number and activity of immune cells to fight infection Prevent diarrhea caused by infectious bacteria Prevent symptoms and incidence of IBS IMPROVE SYMPTOMS OF LACTOSE INTOLERANCE Prevent urinary tract infections Reduce risk of allergy and eczema in children OOOOO Food Video About Food Allergies 49 Carbohydrates Objectives 1 Explore the differences between simple and complex carbohydrates 2 Learn why some carbohydrates are better choices than others 3 Understand how the body breaks down carbohydrates and uses them for fuel 4 Find out how much carbohydrate you should eat each day 5 Look at the growing problem of diabetes and differentiate between Type 1 and Type 2 Carbohydrates One of three macronutrients A compound made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen Derived from plants Provides energy The Carbohydrates Sweeteners Starch Fiber Simple Carbohydrates A monosaccharide or disaccharide such as glucose commonly called sugar Monosaccharide consist of only a single sugar molecule 0 Glucose most abundant sugar in our diet The preferred source of energy for our brain Important source of energy for all cells 0 Galactose does not occur alone in foods It joins with glucose to create lactose o Fructose the sweetest natural sugar found in fruits and Vegetables Also called fruit sugar In processed foods it comes in the form of highfructose com syrup Stay away from Simple Carbohydrates are sugars Contain one or two molecules Monosaccharides contain only one molecule 0 Glucose fructose galactose Disaccharides contain two molecules 0 Lactose maltose sucrose Complex Carbohydrates Long chains of glucose molecules Also called polysaccharides technical name for complex carbohydrate A nutrient compound consisting of long chains of glucose molecules such as starch glycogen and fiber Starch glycogen and ber 0 Starch Storage in plant form Storage form of glucose in plants found in grains legumes and tubers Plants store glucose as polysaccharides in the form of starch Sources of starch grains wheat rice com oats and barley legumes peas beans and lentils and tubers potatoes and yams Our body must break starch molecules down into the monosaccharide glucose can be used to fuel our energy needs Alpha bonds between glucose molecules in starch are easily broken by human digestive enzymes 0 Glycogen Storage Animals store carbohydrate as glycogen Stored in the liver and muscles Broken down into glucose Not found in food and therefore is not a source of dietary carbohydrate The storage form of glucose for animals including humans We store glycogen in our muscles and liver and we can break it down very quickly when we need it for energy Very little glycogen exists in food Not a dietary substance 0 Fiber Polysaccharide cellulose Forms the support structures of leaves stems and plants Beta bonds in dietary fibers are indigestible by human enzymes Fiber is the nondigestible part of plants that forms leaves stems and seeds Fiber consists of long polysaccharide chains but are not easily broken down and absorbed unlike starches Fiber contributes little or no energy to our diet Adequate intake for fiber 25 gramsday women 38 gramsday men 14 grams for every 1000 kcal per day It is best to get fiber from foods because they contain nutrients vitamins and minerals Eat adequate amounts of whole grains vegetables fruits nuts and legumes to get enough fiber Drink water as you increase fiber intake to avoid constipation Increase fiber intake slowly to allow system to adjust Fiber is simply long chains of mostly glucose molecules that are not digestible by human enzymes Therefor they provide no calories to the diet However that does not mean that they are nutritionally unimportant Health Benefits of Fiberrich Carbohydrates Reduce risk for gastrointestinal diseases and heart diseases Better control of blood glucose and cholesterol levels Improves weight control Reduce overall risk for obesity Decrease risk for Type 2 diabetes Healthier gastrointestinal functioning intestines I Total Fiber dietary ber functional fiber Dietary ber 0 Fiber that occurs naturally in foods 0 Fruits vegetables seeds legumes whole grains Functional ber o Manufactured and added to foods 0 Supplements 0 Examples are cellulose guar gum pectin and psyllium I Classi cations of ber Soluble ber o Dissolve in water 0 Viscous form a gel when wet o Easily digested by bacteria in the colon 0 Found in citrus fruits berries oat products beans 0 Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease Type 2 diabetes Insoluble ber 0 Does not dissolve in water 0 Not viscous and cannot be digested by bacteria in the colon 0 Found in whole grains wheat rye brown rice and vegetables 0 Promote regular bowel movements and risk of diverticulosis I Fiber Rich Carbohydrates A group of foods containing either simple or complex carbohydrates that are rich in dietary ber Foods include most fruits vegetables and whole grains that are fresh or only moderately processed Suggested daily total 25 to 30 grams I Shopping for ber Select breads and cereals made with whole grains Buy fresh fruits and vegetables Frozen vegetables and fruits are ok check labels to make sure no added sugars Be careful of sodium Carbohydrates Provide Energy Provide 4 kilocalories kcal per gram and are an excellent source of energy for our cells Red blood cells brain and nerve cells rely on glucose to function properly Our body uses a combination of carbohydrates and fat to fuel daily activities Carbohydrates in the Average American Diet Total carbohydrate consumption is low currently about 4550 Complex carbohydrate consumption is too low currently about 2025 Sugar Sweeteners consumption is too high currently about 2025 Fiber consumption is too low too little total ber Digestion of Carbohydrates Most chemical digestion of carbohydrates occurs in the small intestine All monosaccharides are converted to glucose by the liver Glucose circulating We do not have the enzymes necessary to digest ber Bacteria in the large intestine can break down some ber Pancreatic Amylase Enzyme produced in the pancreas and secreted into the small intestine Digests carbohydrates to maltose Mouth 9 stomach 9 pancreas 9 small intestine 9 liver 9 large intestine
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