Class Notes Biology 1006
Popular in Ecology and the Evolution of Organisms
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Pacicco on Monday February 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1006 at George Washington University taught by Tara Scully in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Ecology and the Evolution of Organisms in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Patterns of Population Growth 0 J shaped in exponential growth 0 Increase by a constant rate 0 Doubling time o S shaped is logistic growth 0 Carrying capacity Carrying capacity 0 The maximum number of individuals supported in an environment 0 Number may change over time 0 Food shortages Irregular Growth 0 Not all populations show an S or curve over time 0 Limiting factors can have a huge impact 0 Population cycles 0 Predator prey relationships demonstrate population cycles 0 Growth Limiting Factors Density independent 0 Factors that are not related to the size of the population Weather uctuations Fire and oods Presticide use 0 Factors that are related to the size of the population in the area Food shortages Lack of habitat Disease Predators o Biodiversity 0 Species diversity species richness and relative abundance 0 Geographic diversity distribution of a community across a geographic range 0 Genetic diversity variation of genes within populations 0 Effects Diverse communities more productive communities Diverse communities greater stability Symbiosis o Often mistaken as always being bene cial 0 Interaction Two or more organisms Community interaction 0 Mutualism interaction where both species bene t Increasing the survival and reproduction of both Gut inhabitant mutualism Seed dispersal mutualism Evolution of mutualism occurs when bene ts outweigh the costs Pollinator mutualism Yucca plant is pollinated Yucca moth gets food 0 By eating some seeds 0 Behavioral mutualism Alpheus shrimp Mutualism effects on community 0 Distribution geographic diversity 0 Abundance species diversity 0 Indirect effects Commensalism o Barnacles that attach themselves to whales Exploitation 0 0 When one species bene ts and the other is harmed 0 Types Herbivores Predators Parasites 0 Outcomes Induced defenses Spines on Cacti Warning coloration Poison dart frog Camou age o Katydid Mimicry Viceroy One species mimics another Mullerian mimicry several species that have protection against predators come to resemble one another 0 Both species are harmful Behavioral adaptation Consumers may alter behaviors of prey o Prey acting together thwart attack Parasitic relationships o A parasite lives on or in a host from which obtains O O nourishment Internal parasites include nematodes and tapeworms External parasites Pathogens are disease causing parasites Many parasites cause behaviors in host organisms that bene t the parasite Exploitation outcomes 0 O Introduced species sometimes disrupt the ecological communities there Fewer parasites than in their original home Lack of predation Consumers can restrict distribution of food source American chestnut trees currently live in isolated patches because of a parasitic fungus Competition 0 O O O interaction where both species are harmed Niche Sum total abiotic and biotic needs of a species populations Both species cannot be as successful as they would in the other s absence 2 types interferenece Interference Competition Direct exclusion Competition between 2 species affects that distributions of those species Barnacle species Exploitative competition Both have the same needed resources 0 Use by both reduces amount available to one another Outcomes Limits distribution and abundance of species that share resources or space Either o Localized extinction competitive exclusion Coexistence sharing of a habitat o Niche partitioning adapt to use niche in different ways therefore reduces competition 0 Competition and coevolution O 0 Competition can increase the differences between species Character development Species evolve to become different over time 0 Results of species interactions 0 Coevolution is the interdependent evolution of town or more species evolution of owing plants and their animal pollinators Trophic composition 0 Food web 0 Contain many food chains 0 Producers 0 Consumers Primary Secondary Tertiary 0 Base of trophic recycling decomposers