Lesson 7 & 8 Notes
Lesson 7 & 8 Notes 4616 - HORT 102
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Irene A. on Monday February 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 4616 - HORT 102 at Washington State University taught by Michael Pumphrey in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultivated Plants in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
HORT 102 LESSON 7 NOTES Lecture 12 Sexual Reproduction 0 fusion of male and female sex cells gametes gt fertilized egg gt egg becomes seed gt seed becomes new plant O 0000 specialized type of cellular reproduction occurs during sexual reproduction in owers chromosome number is split in half diploid gt haploid produces gametes happens in anthers amp ovules Produces 4 haploid daughter cells per each mother cell Stages of Meiosis I 0 chromosomes double 0 duplicated chromatin condenses homologous chromosomes are attracted to each other recombination O crossing over does not occur in mitosis important for genetic variation 0 homologous chromosomes randomly align spindle fibers attach to centromeres 0 homologous chromosome pairs separate going to opposite sides of the cell centromeres are not divided 0 2 daughter cells formed each cell contains one chromosome from the homologous pair Meiosis II 0 chromosomes don39t duplicate new spindle fibers form 0 chromosomes align spindle fibers attach to centromeres 0 centromeres divide chromatids go to opposite sides of the cell 0 nuclear envelope reforms 4 haploid gametes are formed Sexual Reproduction of a Flower 0 0 occurs within ovule inside ovary 0 where female gametes are formed 0 mother cell divides via meiosis gt produces 4 haploid megaspores daughter cells gt one megaspore continues to develop gt mitotic divisions produce 8 nuclei 1 egg 2 polar nuclei 5 other nuclei gt 2 nuclei are synergious 3 become antipodal cells gt end result male gamete formation pollen grains occurs inside anthers 0 mother cell divides via meiosis gt produces 4 haploid microspores gt each 00 microspore continues developing gt microspores divide gt structural change results in gt pollen released by anthers 0 transfer of haploid pollen grains from anthers to female part of stigma 0 pollen grain lands on stigma gt produces pollen tube gt tube grows down to ovary gt pollen grain nuclei are deposited into female gametophyte gt 1 nucleus divides amp produces sperm nuclei gt 1 nucleus becomes tube cell gt sperm nucleus fuses w egg to create seed embryo gt other sperm nucleus fuses w pollen nuclei to create endosperm gt end result double fertilization union of male amp female gametes formation of endosperm energy source for embryo to grow sexual fertilization triple fusion Advantages of Sexual Reproduction 0 separation of allelic pairs traits amp distribution of single alleles via meiosis 0 formation of new combinations of alleles traits as a result of fertilization amp combined gametes carrying different alleles segregation recombination 0 essential part of improving crop plants amp increasing diversity Lecture 13 Improving Crop Plants Through Plant Breeding O bringing a Wild species under human controlmanagement 0 example corn domesticated by american indians 0 art amp science of improving plants to benefit people 0 involves selection of superior plants via breeding to advance the next generation 0 improved plants used for food animal feed fiber amp fuel 0 process of genetically manipulating plants to suit human needs 0 goal is to increase productivity improve value Objectives 0 increase under optimal conditions 0 optimal enough water good headsun intensity fertilizer 0 improve under suboptimal conditions 0 suboptimal drought insect infestation disease 0 improve stability over time amp across production conditions 0 produce safe amp ample food supply 0 predictability ensures economic viability 0 to make harvesting easierquicker O examples upright stalks reduced height nonshattering seed pods 0 improved 0 nutrition value 0 odortastecolor 0 fiber quality 0 enduse properties Breeding Methods 0 bring in new genetic variationdiversity by collecting plants from different parts of the world example crops brought from Europe to US 0 increasing desirable individual in population removing undesirable individuals 0 harvesting only the best plants amp planting their seeds 0 usually done Within naturalindigenous populations I mating genetically different individuals to obtain new genetic combinations 0 create genetic variability among offspring select superior offspring 0 if plants carrying the same alleles at a locus are crossed all of the offspring are identical for that trait 0 if parents carry different alleles at a locus offspring segregate for the trait 0 Hybridization recombination and selection are essential components of a successful plant breeding program I genetic makeup of an organism I factors around an organism including 0 moisture nutrient levels temperature light I physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism based on genotype interacting with environment 0 phenotype genotype environment I when heterozygote is indistinguishable from homozygote 0 one allele masks expression of another allele 0 allele whose effect is not seenexpressed I contributions of both alleles are visible Self vs Cross Pollination I reproduction mode amp breeding strategy depends on arrangement amp structure of owers I pollen amp egg come from same ower 0 homogenous parent amp offspring identical 0 Hybridizing selfpollinating crops I Emasculation removal of anthers before they shed pollen I pollen from preferred male is transferred by hand to stigma I introduces genetic variation to a population I alleles become fixed are the same at a locus occurs over generations of selfpollination 0 pollen amp egg are from separate plants 0 offspring are genetically distinct from parents 0 random mating leads to many combinations of genes 0 hybrids produced by crosspollinating genetically dissimilar parents Capitalize on Genetic Diversity 0 hybrid offspring perform better than parents 0 dominant alleles mask deleterious damagingharmful recessive alleles O inbreeding reveals deleterious alleles 0 genetic diversity is key to stability in crosspollinated species I good genotypes are vegetatively propagated I select plants that produce good offspring when they mate randomly I ensure good alleles are present most of the time HORT 102 LESSON 8 NOTES Lecture 14 Biotechnology Molecular Crop Improvement 39 What is O a field of applied biology involving the use of nonliving organisms and bioprocesses in engineering technology medicine amp other fields requiring bioproducts 0 The application of biology for the use of humans 0 biotechnology has been around for a long time 0 using technology to improve crops 0 examples fermenting Wine turning milk into cheeseyogurt yeast amp bread selective breeding I improving plant production to supply food fiber fuel etc 0 Enhancing selection processes via biotechnology tools vs gene manipulation 0 isal GMOs genetically modi ed organisms 0 biotechnology often associated W GMOs I biotechnology at GMO 0 many nonGMO biotechnology issues amp applications 0 Altering genetic composition without sexual reproduction no hybridization or meiosis I genetic transformation gene splicing genetic modification I identification isolation duplication amp insertion of genesDNA from one genome into another I insert target DNA into species of interest recover viable cells that will divide select target trait of interest generate a plant 0 gt GMOS I incorporate genes from bacteria weeds amp animals into plants I remove sexual incompatibility barriers 0 example antifreeze gene in fish used in strawberries to prevent frost damage 0 Common target traits resistance to herbicides insects amp disease pharmaceutical use increased nutrition 0 Common products containing GMOs cereal corn chips soda soy burgers taco shells juice baby formula baby food corn muffins tofu O of GMOs facilitates gene transfer decreased pesticide use cheaper for farmers enhanced nutrition 0 Issues with Acceptance I golden rice enriched w vitamin K is yellow instead of white gt creates social stigma I GMOs unaccepted as a food source 0 escape of cloned genes into environment second hand gene escape allergic responses ethics NonGMO Biotechnology Tools 0 products of these techniques are not GMOs because they are developed via normal sexual reproduction I process of determining the order of the chemical building blocks that make up DNA in a chromosome I used to make a genetic map 0 is a graphic representation of DNA sequence arrangements like reading a book I allow scientists to identify what genes produce certain traits I use of DNA markers linked to loci for phenotypic screening I mark amp identify important genes I saves time no need to go through field trials to determine if a trait is present ex disease resistance 0 separate genetic makeup from environmental effects I more accurate selection of certain genotypes I method of asexual reproduction used to produce clones of a plant I uses plant cells39 ability to regenerate a Whole organism from one cell I Applications conserve rare or endangered species produce virus free plants produce identical individuals genetic engineering for Polyphenol Oxidase Activity I high levels of polyphenol oxidase cause discoloration in noodles I screen for high levels amp eliminate them I identify What varieties of Wheat are good for making noodles
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