Chapter 9: Cognitive Approaches to Learning
Chapter 9: Cognitive Approaches to Learning EDP 301
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Monday February 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDP 301 at University of Arizona taught by Heidi Burross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 266 views. For similar materials see Child development in Educational Psychology at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer CHAPTER 9 Cognitive Approaches to Learning Learning Goals 1 Describe various types of complex cognitive skills 2 Explain barriers to learning 3 Identify methods for aiding students in developing problem solving decisionmaking and other complex cognitive skills 4 Distinguish among types of learning transfer 5 Identify the factors that affect learning Guidelines for Promoting Strategic Learning Describe the strategy and explain why it is useful Make sure the task is challenging without being frustrating Explicitly teach the strategy by modeling both its use and metacognitive awareness Provide opportunities for students to practice the strategy in a variety of contexts Provide feedback as students practice Learning strategies May be general to learning or speci c to a situation General methods include Summarizing Outlining Notetaking Prioritizing Concept mapping Using mnemonics IDEALL Identify De ne Explore Anticipate Look back and Learn Speci c methods For reading READS Review Examine Ask Do Summarize SQ3R SQRRR Summarize Question Read Recite Review For students struggling with vocabulary in any subject area LINCS List the parts Identify a reminder Note a story context Create a picture Selftest Issues in decisionmaking Burross H 2015 Feb 20 Chapter 9 Cognitive Approaches to Learning University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer De nition identi ed a list of options solutions sometimes based on prior experience making a choice among a set of options Con rmation bias sometimes why we make poor decisions when examining options we have one we prefer and we only seek information that con rms that bias and support that choice Belief perseverance presented with info that goes against bias but still go with the biased decision you persevere with your choice denial Overcon dence bias you are sure this is the right decision that you make the decision without seeking informationevidence about the choice Hindsight bias the three above happen during the decisionmaking processing looking back and claiming oh I knew that was the right answer but you didn t choose it only happens when results are bad with the choice they made Heuristics De nition rule of thumb mental shortcut Availability heuristic o The salience of the examples lead us to believe that the instance is more ex People who refuse to y because it is unsafe that is their reasoning in making their decision the idea of the plane crashing is scary Representativeness heuristic o In we tend to rely on similarities to known situations and less on true probabilities ex She is with save the whales water conservationist save the trees are the odds that her name more likely Rainbow or Jennifer in all likelihood her name would be Jennifer because it is more common than Rainbow Problem solving De nition clarifying and identifying steps needed to approach the problem more involved process than decision making 1 Find and frame problems can be the worst part of this process 2 Develop good strategies 0 Subgoaling breaking a big goal into smaller goals Example Graduate 9 takes classes summer classes Algorithms mathematical formula steps Example Eggs our cake Burross H 2015 Feb 20 Chapter 9 Cognitive Approaches to Learning University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer Meansends analysis strategy Example want to buy a car costs so much 9 can get 20000 by the end of the year can save this way Analogical thought new task so if 1 form it in this way I can solve it Example I ve graduated now I want to go to grad school set up steps you did to graduate undergrad Evaluate solutions 4 Rethink and rede ne problems and solutions over time come up with a couple ways to meet your goal then you go and reevaluate and rede ne problems U Approaches to problem solving approaches are what you actually do Successive scanning trial and error approach try until you do or don t get it not learning from your mistakes Focus gambling identifying potentials in getting what you want but you ONLY try one because you have the resources to do it once Example studying for a test in an hour and focusing what you talked about in class the most gamble Conservative focus reevaluate solutions and try the new ones trying one at a time but you are learning from your mistakes as you go start with most feasible and if that doesn t work then you go with the next feasible Simultaneous scanning most dif cult for someone trying everything at once to get results Ex battery died in your car and replaced everything to try and x it Obstacles to problem solving not mutually exclusive can be a combination of these Fixation get xated on something that prevents us from solving the problem Example getting fixated on a politicians hair that you can t get past Lack of motivation don t even want to I solving the problem 0 Lack of persistence similar to lack of motivation but you have started it but you don t it o Inadequate emotional control can be negative ex depression positive so excited about something you don t start a problem ex excited to go grad school that you don t remember the deadlines to apply Problembased learning Burross H 2015 Feb 20 Chapter 9 Cognitive Approaches to Learning University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer De nition has some implicationapplication usually has some tangibleobservable aspect Ex School wants to set up a recycling program Bene ts 0 Provides opportunities to solve realworld problems Allows for monitoring of effectiveineffective strategies Can involve parents Improves students use of rules knowledge and strategies Can use technology 0000 Developmental changes in problem solving Ability to use rules increases changes as you get older gets more exible as you get older start to test limits Better at planning and prioritizing importance of order gets better as you get older ex a child saying punch line before giving background Increased complexity of problem solving taking unique approaches to problems More effective strategic problem solving better at using variety of strategies and using them appropriately and effectively Creative thinking encourages metacognition thinking in the same ways will come up with the same results Definition amp importance looking at problems outside the box different perspectives multiple solutions thinking in unique and unorthodox ways two types 1 Convergent thinking coming from different perspectives to the same answeroutcome ex How to water a plant some have watering can some use shoe some use their mouth different starting point 9 same outcome 2 Divergent thinking start in the same ideaplace but the end product looks different same starting point 9 different outcome Sources of creativity Domainrelevant skills basics before creativity Creativityrelevant processes encouraging students to try different approaches Intrinsic task motivation individual is doing it because they like to do it allowing for choice tends to be more creative if they enjoy doing it How can we encourage creative thinking in students Creating tasks etc Critical thinking De nition amp importance summarizeunderstand make connections synthesize analyze how it works and how it doesn t work Difference between metacognition is self my thinking internal process critical thinking is thinking about other information external Burross H 2015 Feb 20 Chapter 9 Cognitive Approaches to Learning University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer How can teachers encourage critical thinking Ask open ended questions recognizing when they are using critical thought group discussions for other perspectives experimenting inquiry assessing critical thought making it sound important putting something into their own words summarizing strengths and weaknesses Some can relate to having the same characteristics of metacognition having them be re ective is a part of the process Types of transfer more of a spectrumcontinuous NOT absolute De nition learning is vital if student can t translate information to the classroom to the outside world then it isn t as relevant learnin outside of the classroom Near vs far transfer how similar the and situations are how much alike those situation are NEAR learn in a 2004 civic and your rst car is 2008 civic m learn in 2004 civic and your rst car is an F150 In learning you have to set up examples for use outside the classroom ex some people believe this and some people believe this Low road vs high road transfer has to do with how consciously you are using the learning in the application LOW ROAD you re not thinking about whenhow you learned it ex Tying your shoes HIGH ROAD consciously thinking of how you learned it when you learned it ex in math when you are thinking of how to get from step one to step two 0 Forwardreach1ng vs backwardreach1ng transfer FORWARDREACHING how you will use your learning and application involves planning BACKWARDREACHING how it is that something applies to something you ve learned in the past involves memories Factors that affect learning Factor Example Similarity between the two learning situations Students who understand that quickly is an adverb are likely to conclude that openly is an adverb Depth of learners original understanding Students who discuss and practice with examples and applications are more likely to transfer than those who don t Learning Context Grammar rules in the context of a written paragraph are more effective than the Burross H 2015 Feb 20 Chapter 9 Cognitive Approaches to Learning University of Arizona Tucson AZ Disclaimer This outline in black is provided from Heidi Burross from D2L see citation in footer rules in isolated sentences Quality and variety of examples and other experience A real lobster spider beetle and butter y better promote transfer of the concept arthropod than pictures of the animals or only seeing the lobster Emphasis on metacognition Students who are aware of the way they think and learn are more likely to transfer than those who are less aware Burross H 2015 Feb 20 Chapter 9 Cognitive Approaches to Learning University of Arizona Tucson AZ
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