Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Introduction to Biological Anthropology
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Date Created: 04/15/14
ANTH 270 Lecture Two Genetics 1 Divisions of Genetics a Mendelian Classical Genetics i Focuses on inheritance of traits from one generation to the next b Cellular amp Molecular Genetics i Study of genetics at the level of basic building blocks cells and DNA c Population Genetics i Variation in observable traits and at molecular level within and between populations d Phylogenetics i Discerning evolutionary relationships through observable traits and molecular level e Behavioral Genetics i Influence of genetics on behavior 2 Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance a Gregor Mendel father of genetics i Austrian monk Grew 29000 pea plants b Before Mendel traits thought to be blended c Traits are discrete either or not mixture Each offspring gets one factor from father one factor from mother e Some traits dominant some recessive a Some traits determined by more than one gene Humans have 2025 thousand genes c Types of Genes i Structural genes t Regulatory genes Homeobox genes 4 Cells a Basic building blocks of life all living things made of cells Prokaryotes c Eukaryotes i Contain organelles and nucleus d Basic Structure of Cells i Cell membrane 1 Allows water small molecules to move freely large molecules are controlled 0Q Cytoplasm DNA 1 Double stranded helix 2 James Watson and Francis Crick structure of DNA 1953 3 Universal code 4 Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin 5 Components of the Genome a Genome b Chromosomes c Gene 6 Function of DNA a Genes are found in long strings of DNA b DNA composed of phosphate molecules and deoXyribose sugar c Rungs composed of base pairs Nucleotides bases i Adenine A Thymine T Guanine G Cytosine C A bonds to T G bonds to C Information Storage Information Transfer g DNA replicates itself iv Ribosomes V Mitochondria 1 Mitochondrial DNA vi Nucleus 1 Stores and utilizes genetic material 2 Surrounded by nuclear membrane 3 Contains proteins and other molecules a DNA chromatin chromosomes b RNA 5 DNA Replication a Enzymes break bonds DNA pulls apart Double helix in untwisted and each strand is copied then repaired with free oating nucleotides c Necessary for growth and development and tissue repair Chromosomes i In use chromatin loose strands of DNA During division bound up in chromosomes dense bound structures of DNA and protein Humans have 23 chromosomes iv Autosomes V Sex chromosomes 6 Mitosis a Only in somatic cells not seX cells b Produces identical cells 2diploid Chromosomes duplicate 46 to 92 0 d Chromosomes join align and separate e Cell divides into two cells 7 Meiosis Forms gametes sex cells a b Results in 4 gametes each gamete has 12 of parent chromosomes haploid c Initial duplication two separations d Recombination i Homologues break at identical locations then rejoin opposite partners Creates new combinations of alleles of each chromosome Occurs randomly several times on each chromosome iv Results in miXing of genes inherited from parents v Produces recombinant genes 8 Protein Synthesis a DNA is a recipe for making proteins b Proteins have the ability to bind to other molecules i Amino acids 1 specified by DNA triplets c mRNA i DNA is in nucleus cannot reach site of protein synthesis C mRNA copies DNA so DNA can be brought out of nucleus P RNA 1 Base Uracil is substituted for Thymine 2 single stranded 3 critical for protein synthesis d Steps for protein synthesis i Transcription 1 DNA separates 2 attracts free oating RNA nucleotides 3 DNA code is copied 4 mRNA carries copied code outside of nucleus Translation 1 At ribosome copied code is translated into groups of 3 mRNA bases codons 2 mRNA codons specify which amino acid to create 0 Transfer RNA tRNA 1 Grabs amino acid that matches codon transfers to what is being translated carries to ribosomes Ribosome joins amino acids together 3 Form polypeptide chains and proteins NLJEIBEI pure F1 ibamumae amp 3 Nuclear 4 i users the Basra uracil U imqiaad nrf um FEHINA C lrrgglxng 1 amincn acid I x mnftW 9h view S pamng 1 Mutation a Random change in DNA i Bases Chromosome number b ULTIMATE SOURCE OF ALL GENETIC VARIATION c Must occur in sex cells for evolution d Typically bad if in coding DNA ANTH 270 Chapter Three Vocabulary 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Proteins 3D molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules Nucleus A structure organelle found in all eukaryotic cells The nucleus contains DNA and RNA among other things Molecules Structures made up of two or more atoms Molecules can combine with other molecules to form more complex structures RNA Ribonucleic acid A single stranded molecules similar in structure to DNA Three forms of RNA are essential to protein synthesis Cytoplasm The semi uid gel like substance contained within the cell membrane the nucleus and numerous other structures involved with cell function are found within the cytoplasm Protein Synthesis The manufacture of proteins the assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules Directed by DNA Mitochondria Structures contained within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that convert energy derived from nutrients into a form that can be used by the cell Ribosomes Structures composed of a form of RNA call rRNA and protein Ribosomes are found in a cell s cytoplasm and are essential to the manufacture of proteins mtDNA mitochondrial DNA DNA found in the mitochondria MtDNA is inherited only from the mother Somatic Cells Basically all the cells in the body except those involved with reproduction Gametes Reproductive cells developed from precursor cells in ovaries and testes Zygote A cell formed by the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell It contains the full complement of chromosomes and has the potential of developing into an entire organism Nucleotides Basic units of the DNA molecules composed of a sugar a phosphate and one of four DNA bases Replicate To duplicate The DNA molecule is able to make copies of itself Enzymes Specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body Complementary In genetics referring to the fact that DNA bases form pairs in a precise manner For example adenine can bond only to thymine These two base pairs are said to be complementary because one requires the other to form a complete DNA base pair Hemoglobin A protein molecule that occurs in red blood cells and binds to oxygen molecules Hormones Substances usually proteins that are produced by specialized cells and that travel to other parts of the body where they in uence chemical reactions and regulate various cellular functions Amino Acids Small molecules that are the components of proteins mRNA messenger RNA A form of RNA that is assembled on a sequence of DNA bases It carries the DNA code to the ribosome during protein synthesis 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Codons Triplets of messenger RNA bases that code for speci c amino acids during protein synthesis tRNA transfer RNA A type of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis Mutation A change in DNA The term can refer to changes in DNA bases as well as to changes in chromosome number and or structure Gene A sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein a portion of a protein or any functional product such as RNA A gene may be composed of thousands of DNA bases Noncoding DNA DNA that does not direct the production of proteins However such DNA segments produce thousands of molecules that are involved in gene regulation Thus the term is misleading Exons Segments of genes that are transcribe and are involved in protein synthesis Introns Segments of genes that are initially transcribed and are involved in protein synthesis Regulatory Genes Genes that in uence the activity of other genes Regulatory genes direct embryonic development and are involved in physiological processes throughout life They are critically important to the evolutionary process Homeobox Genes An evolutionarily ancient family of regulatory genes that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues There are at least 20 families of homeobox genes Sicklecell Anemia A severe inherited hemoglobin disorder in which red blood cells collapse when deprived of oxygen It results from inheriting two copies of a mutant allele The type of mutation that produces the sickle cell allele is a point mutation Point Mutation A change in one of the four DNA bases Chromosomes Discrete structures composed of DNA and proteins found only in the nuclei of cells Chromosomes are visible under magnification only during certain phases of cell division Autosomes All chromosomes except sex chromosomes Sex Chromosomes In mammals the X and Y chromosomes Locus The position or location on a chromosome where a given gene occurs Alleles Alternate forms of a gene Alleles occur at the same locus on paired chromosomes and thus govern the same trait but because they re different their action may result in different expressions of that trait Karyotype The chromosomes of an individual or what is typical of a species viewed arranged in pairs and according to size and position of the centromere Mitosis Simple cell division The process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells Meiosis Cell division in specialized cells in ovaries and tested Meiosis involves two 40 41 42 43 44 divisions and results in four daughter cells each containing only 12 the original number of chromosomes These cells can develop into gametes Recombination The exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes during meiosis also called crossing over Clones Organisms that are genetically identical to another organism The term may also be used to refer to genetically identical DNA segrnents molecules or cells Random Assortment The chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis Along with recombination random assortment in an important source of genetic Variation but not new alleles PCR polymerase chain reaction A method of producing thousands of copies of a DNA sample Human Genome Project An international effort to sequence and map the human genome finished in 2003 ANTH 270 Chapter Four Vocabulary 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 Selective Breeding A practice whereby animal or plant breeders choose which individual animals or plants will be allowed to mate based on the traits such as coat color or body size they hope to produce in the offspring Animals or plants that don t have the desirable traits aren t allowed to breed Hybrids Offspring of parents who differ from each other with regard to certain traits or certain aspects of genetic makeup also known as heterozygotes Principle of Segregation Genes alleles occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs During gamete formation the members of each pair of alleles separate so that each gamete contains one member of each pair Recessive Describing a trait that isn39t expressed in heterozygotes it also refers to the allele that governs the trait For a recessive allele to be expressed an individual must have two copies of it ie the individual must be homozygous Dominant In genetics describing a trait governed by an allele that39s expressed in the presence of another allele ie in heterozygotes Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes This is the definition of complete dominance Homozygous Having the same allele at the same location on both members of a pair of chromosomes Heterozygous Having different alleles at the same locus on members of a pair of chromosomes Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual Genotype usually refers to an organism39s genetic makeup or alleles at a particular locus Phenotypes The observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism the detectable expressions of genotypes frequently in uenced by environmental factors Principle of Independent Assortment The distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not in uence the distribution of another pair The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another Mendelian Traits Characteristics that are in uenced by alleles at only one genetic locus Examples include many blood types such as ABC Many genetic disorders including sickle cell anemia and Tay Sachs disease are also Mendelian traits Antigens Large molecules found on the surface of cells Several different loci govern various antigens on red and white blood cells Foreign antigens provoke an immune response Codominance The expression of two alleles in heterozygotes In this situation neither allele is dominant or recessive so they both in uence the phenotype Pedigree Chart A diagram showing family relationships It39s used to trace the hereditary pattern of particular genetic usually Mendelian traits Polygenic Referring to traits in uenced by genes at two or more loci Examples include stature skin color eye color and hair color Many polygenic traits are in uenced by 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 environmental factors such as nutrition and exposure to sunlight Pigment In this context molecules that in uence the color of skin hair and eyes Pleiotropy A situation where the action of one gene affects several different traits Variation In genetics inherited differences among individuals the basis of all evolutionary change Allele Frequency In a population the percentage of all the alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele Population Within a species a community of individuals where mates are usually found Gene Pool All of the genes shared by the reproductive members of a population Microevolution Small changes occurring within species such as changes in allele frequencies Macroevolution Changes produced only after many generations such as the appearance of a new species Tandem Repeats Short adjacent segments of DNA within a gene that are repeated several times Gene FloW Exchange of genes between populations Genetic Drift Evolutionary changes or changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors in small populations Genetic drift is a result of small population size Founder Effect A type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from larger populations or are remnants of the latter Sicklecell Trait Heterozygous condition where a person has one Hbquot4 allele and one Hbquot5 allele Thus they have some normal hemoglobin
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