US HISTORY Class Notes 2/23 & 2/25
US HISTORY Class Notes 2/23 & 2/25 1376
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meredith Johnson on Monday February 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1376 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Curry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/15
Notes History 1376 22315 Hamilton Federalists dominant of the two political parties Characteristic Assertive nationalism Constitution vague document not a blueprint but a sketch Great strengths subject to interpretation as times change bc exible open to disagreements Hamiltonian interpretation re central government quotBroadloose interpretation of the US Constitutionquot as opposed to narrowstrict Not all founding fathers were strict interpreters Hamilton said Constitution gave national government 3 kinds of power expressed enumerated or speci ed written in the Constitution resultant results from the expressed powers Congress has expressed power to declare war resultant power to control conquered territory implied necessary and proper clause article section 8 Vague or elastic clause most controversy over these powers Controversy early in Washington term jefferson vs Hamilton over creation of Bank of US O O 0 Hamilton in favor of bank Jefferson against it Congress pass bill in 1791 that create national bank Bank of US modeled after Bank of England if the president approved would issue money collect taxes regulate nation39s nancial system make loans to government agency amp private borrowers Jefferson urged Washington to veto quotNothing in Constitution that gives Congress authority to create national bankquot no enumerated power that gives Congress this authority quotGive Congress an inch and they39ll take a milequot quotif the Constitution doesn39t say you can do it you can39t do itquot Hamilton argued that powers expressly granted eg power to regulate currency implied power to create bank 0 Ends justify the means No 0 Legitimate ends justify legitimate means Yes Look at the Constitution to see what you can do vs look at it to see what you cannot do what you are forbidden to do assume that it is not prohibited you can do it Anything necessary and proper 0 Washington leaned towards Hamilton broadloose interpretation Characteristic States Rights quotMen are ambitious vindictive and rapaciousquot Hamilton from Federalist papers quotto look for a continuation of harmony would be to disregard the universal course of human eventsquot people don39t get along with one another States39 rights are divisive re ection of federalists39 cynical view Hamilton strong central government needed to curb men s quotnatural instinct to quarrel and fightquot 0 lnsisted that wise government has to accept quotthe depravity of human naturequot and try to control it believed best place to put control was in strong central government 0 STRONG central government not weakened by state governments as in articles of confederation National rights must trump states39 rights 0 Thought that rich wellborn able quotsober men of the business communityquot were basically built to rule Characteristic Elitists A government controlled by the few an elite Willing to accept republican government popular participation people have some voice through popular representation Did not believe majority should run the country Opposed to proper democracy a government responsive to will of majority democracy another word for quotnothing left to losequot implied the rule of the mob Feared undiluted democracy quotGovernment should be by the rich the wellborn and the ablequot all of which Federalists assumed were Federalists Afraid of the masses amp afraid of the people 0 Hamilton quotAll communities divide themselves into the few and the many the rst are the rich and the wellborn the other the mass of the people Give therefore to the rst class a distinct permanent share in the government They will check the unsteadiness of the second and as they cannot receive any advantage by a change they therefore will ever maintain good governmentquot 0 Sure that if people left alone they would become a mob 0 George Cabot Federalist quotI hold democracy in its natural operation to be government by the worstquot 0 Jeremy Belknap New England Clergyman quotLet it stand as a principle that government originates from the people but let the people be taught that they are not able to govern themselvesquot Also carried over to foreign affairs 0 Federalists admired England viewed it as perfect society government by an elite with liberty amp the appropriate respect for property rights 0 Seemed that in the US the people had gained too much power Federalists loved England hated France 0 hated Jeffersonians because they loved France 0 Some Feds even wanted to go to war with France Put in restrictions to restrict the power of the people electoral government etc Federalists hoped to establish other restrictions to majority rule wanted to maintain a government controlled by the few not the many Had control over all branches of government 0 Faced a serious problem many of their ideas not in step with important developments in new nation When they organized Constitution US was not a full democracy but inching towards greater popular participation in government American revolution accelerated that movement towards greater popular participation in government quotSnobbery amp arrogancequot of federalists running against growing trend towards democracy Direction of the changes was clear The Federalists were out of step Decided that the best way to deal with it was to limit democracy restrict as best they could the participation of that potential quotmobquot in affecting government 0 Making sure that most important economic issues had nancial stake in the government as controlled by the federalists tie the most important economic groups in the nation to the new central government guarantee stability and order 0 Hamilton devised a series of economic programs that he presented in 1791 0 Several parts of plan but all aimed towards same goal to get the rich well born and able to support the government amp hold on support by making sure the nancial program worked as Hamilton planned it to work 0 Three major parts 0 FIRST Fund national debt at par value During American revolutionary war government under Articles of Confederation forced to conduct business on credit issued bonds paper money other things that amount to IOUs meant to be paid off after war was over After war was over government was unable to pay off debts had no money could not tax Governments with IOUs sold them to nancial speculators often at great discounts Face value of a bill 100 but only in theory Real value might just be 10 Hamilton says that government under the Constitution will honor this old debt at full value will pay the holders of the IOUs full amount Proposed to do this by giving the new holders new government bonds bonds that would redeem old IOUs at face value amp also gain interest Why did this work so well Obviously plan established good credit of new nation under Constitution tie important group of merchants bankers speculators to new government Allow merchants and speculators who owned most of this debt to make a great pro t new government IOUs they39d paid a lot less to acquire quotclever political partquot IOUs would not be worth anything if new government that issued them were not to succeed the validity of the IOUs were tied to the success of the new government If the new government failed What the speculators got from Hamilton would be worthe55 So owners of the IOUs would have nancial stake in the new government amp naturally support the new government Hamilton hoped that with that support they would invest their own private capital in the new nation for the economic development 0 SECOND assume state debts Pay off the debts that had been run up by states during the revolution at par value Many people objected because they saw it as an unwarranted invasion of states39 rights by central government Others objected because they lived in states that were better off amp had paid off their debts Hamilton39s goal was to bind economic state to success of government Sought to improve the reputation of the central government tie the creditors to the central government 0 THIRD Establish a national bank quotcapstonequot of the program Regulate the economy just as the Bank of England did in the old country Hamilton justi ed the establishment of national bank not because of an expressed power but an implied power Necessary and proper clause Loose interpretation of the constitution 0 Financial plan very useful and ingenious plan for solving the economic problems of the new nation amp establishing the central government39s credit at home and abroad 0 Political goal more important drawing support of the elite Rich wellborn amp able New elitist government would have support of these elite groups 0 Hamilton39s goal was always primarily political Believed that if this plan worked the federalists would stay in power inde nitely Men are governed by selfinterest if a government is created to serve those interests men will support that government 0 quotyou scratch my back I39ll scratch yoursquot REMEMBER elitists Selfinterest not of the people but of the elite Hamilton realistic political leader whose views symbolized the federalist philosophy of governments Emphasis on security rather than liberty Rule by those with stake in society Built strong and effective political party FEDERALIST ABUSE OF POLITICAL POWER Situation abroad French revolution Began in 1789 uprising of bourgeoisie By 1792 had turned bloody 1795 the directory had established control 0 0 Policy towards US decidedly unfriendly Essentially France under directory aimed at recovering the territory in North America that had been lost to England in the French and Indian war French government under the directory appointed in the US lndian chiefs as brigadiers in French army to quotstir up troublequot in the US Attempted to convince French Canadians to break away and form seperate government Bought Spanish holdings in US closed off New Orleans to western trades Licensed French privateers to attack US shipping by 1796 many ships had been captured by privateers causing troubled US shipping sent agents to US to stir up trouble by 1797 essentially undeclared war between US and France amp French were winning Situation at home Federalists were in retreat Jeffersonians rising in power especially in western part of US Only a matter of time before the Jeffersonians would be victorious and take central government away from US Possibility of dramatic reversal PresidentJohn Adams a Fed became involved in major dispute with France Often called the XYZ Affair O O O 0 October 1797 Because of shocking behavior of French from US point of view there was a rising antiFrench sentiment in US Some even called for declaration of war against France PresidentJohn Adams sends 3man American commission to France to try to work out things diplomatically settle outstanding disputes using diplomacy When delegation reached Paris 3 agents of French government x y amp z asked for 250k bribe amp 12mi US loan from US AND an of cial apology from antiFrench sentiments they said John Adams had made in a statement to Congress XYZ must come up with this before your agents can even talk to our foreign minister Such bribes common in this time but US thought this was too high just for the price of talking Refused bribes reported to John Adams ADAMS FURIOUS reported full affair to congress Americans furious Newspapers quotMillions for defense not one cent for tributequot AntiFrench feelings because of XYZ affair spilled over onto Republicans quotwe hate the French Jefferson loves the French We hate Jeffersonquot Federalist popularity rose again Jeffersonian popularity fell Federalist party leaders in Congress decided to seize moment amp pass legislation 1798 designed to suppress the vote of their political opponents and thereby keep federalists in power 0 Naturalization Act 0 Alien amp Sedition Acts Notes History 1376 22315 Last time Federalists amp abusive political power advantage they tried to take of American public39s response of XYZ affair Congress in effort to suppress voting by opposition Jefferson supporters passed series of laws 0 Naturalization Act of 1798 Purpose to keep recent immigrants mainly lrish from voting for as long as possible Provisions immigrants had to Declare intentions to become citizens ve years in advance 0 Have resided in the US for 14 years in a state for 5 years before becoming citizens Register with local authorities or be detained by Justice of the Peace without trial Repealed during Jefferson39s presidency 0 Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 Alien Act Peacetime authority to deport aliens President deemed dangerous to the peace and safety of the US 0 President Adams never used it Expuedin1800 Alien Enemies Act Wartime authority to deport aliens of an aliens country or subject them to restraints if they were permitted to remain in US 0 Still enforced Sedition Act Outlawed the writing printing or publishing of quotfalse scandalous or malicious criticismquot of President or Congress 0 Censorship 0 10 men mostly proJefferson newspaper editors imprisoned for criticizing the Federalists Expired in 1801 Federalists attempted to muzzle political opponents especially those who were not yet citizens using fear stirred up by overseas incidents Some of the most controversial legislation in American history Jefferson called these acts quotreign of terrorquot saw this as a threat to their political way of life Attempted to take action that prevented Federalists from succeeding Turned to two state governments Passed two resolutions in attempt to undo the quotmaliciousnessquot of these acts 0 Led to o The Virginia Resolutions Written byJames Madison States multiple could decide whether federal law was constitutional o The Kentch Resolutions Written anonymously by Thomas Jefferson One state could decide whether federal law was constitutional Attempted to have these state governments declare these national laws unconstitutional Jeffersonians unsuccessful Did Federalists laws allow them to keep control of central government No F lost toJ in national election of 1800 At the time called quotrevolution of 1800quot Federalist era in America ended in 1801 12 years 17891801 Federalists so what 0 Important and useful 0 Established strong central government established so rmly that they were replaced by more liberal administration and their government system continued However Federalists did not generally continue in politics after 1801 0 John Marshall chiefjustice of Supreme Court from 18001834 0 Established political philosophy of government an important way of looking at government what it should do and what it should be 0 However angered many people at the time Madison Jefferson who came to believe that their nationalism was denying the people the bene ts that the American Revolution had promised 0 Jefferson who opposed Federalists believed that under Feds too much loss of liberty in favor of security 0 Feds had emphasized security at expense of liberty 0 Madison Jefferson established Jeffersonian tradition Federalists lost control of executive and legislative branches in election of 1800 JEFFERSONIANS Special focus on states and states rights Thomas Jefferson 0 Over time has become a hero to men amp women of widely varying philosophies quotAll things to all peoplequot why 0 Richard Hofstadter o For Example revolutionists wrote that men s rights were undeniable inalienable but owned about a dozen saves O O Believed deeply in preserving agrarian society but believed in progress amp change Nationalist by training strong localist loyalties to Virginia One view of Constitution in 18th cent before his presidency another in 19th cent after his presidency Lived to be unusually old for his time 83 died on July 4 1826 Saw many changes attempted to adapt his views to the changes 0 Basic Jeffersonian Values 0 Limited government 0 Accountability of public officials O O O Dispersal of power Respect for individual privacy Educann Popular misconceptions about Jefferson 0 Often treated as a vague dreameridealist unable to cope with practical affairs Hofstadter denies Jefferson had many ideals but was notjust an idealist had many practical ideas as well Able and successful politician leader of a national party Kennedy quotthis is the most extraordinary collection of talent that has ever been gathered together at the White House with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alonequot PoHUcalthosophy o Outgrowth of self and environment result of both nature amp nurture O O lntellectually a quotchild of the enlightenmentquot In uenced byJohn Locke and others intellectual quotbaggagequot included Belief in natural rights Faith in reason not a quotChristianquot but a quotdeistquot Idealism belief in progress Optimism hope for perfectibility Education necessary for all men an quotessential ingredient of any good societyquot 0 Not just for the philosophers 0 Also in uenced by his environment Grew up as the son of a relatively rich man in Virginia Neighbors quotmen on the makequot enterprising frontiersmen Distance contributed to isolation resulted in patterns of individualism independence selfhelp Among these neighbors little reliance of government or any sort of outside help As a result Jefferson developed certain social attitudes Faith in selfemployed individual citizens Entrepreneurs quottypical Americansquot Faith in yeoman farmers small selfsustaining farmers Conversely fear of the urban working class amp dependent slaves 0 Usually blind to the Industrial revolution that was sweeping Europe Political philosophy of Republican party Madison ampJefferson 0 NOT the Republican party of Lincoln39s time values very different 0 Over time the Republican party would have very different names 0 Democratic Republican party 0 Democratic party the same party we have today Organized itself around the political philosophy ofJeffersonians o Originated from nationalist sentiments in Washington 0 Some objected to the direction that Washington was taking in domestic and foreign affairs 0 People decided that Washington admin was excessively nationalistic in its control 0 Thought Hamilton s program was focusing too much on bene ting the elite o Objected to what they considered the almost monarchical tendencies of the feds o Organized to oppose certain Hamiltonian measures 0 Out of this organized opposition the party ofJefferson and Madison grew 0 As it developed it developed political tradition we have called Jeffersonian convictions A set of attitudes a set of assumptions 0 Essential elements ofJeffersonian Republicans that manifested in political party amp in government once they took over 0 Moderate Nationalists Not narrow ocaists but Strict constructionists Way they tried to react to alien and sedition laws 0 Madison father of Constitution quotmost brilliant and capable of FFquot pushed for more powerful central government Favored strong nationalism but not too strong concluded that Hamiltonian Federalists were attempting to make the central government too strong 0 Jeffersonians seized on ocaism looked to Constitution to nd what bene ted local interests Parts of it that emphasized power to the states if Constitution read in literal and narrow way Stressed the narrow and strict reading of the Constitution Jefferson argued that the central government only have explicit powers implied powers are quotinadmissiblequot and unconstitutional 0 After the passing of AlienSedition the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions drafted see What came of the Resolutions 0 Failed No other states agreed not a single one Why talk about them Discussed an issue that the Constitution had not answered or was vague about 0 Which was sovereign the state or the national Later answered by Supreme Court 0 Also became precedents for later states rights arguments o In 1798 sovereign government was still open and had not been answered of cially What had happened between 1789 and 1829 o Marbury vs Madison 0 ChiefJustice Marshall Supreme Court has authority under Constitution to decide whether laws are constitutional or not Represent high tide ofJeffersonian insistence on doctrine of states39 rights 0 Attitude toward government Limited Government quotThat government is best which governs leastquot NOT ANARCHISTS Government has positive functions however limited power allows more liberty for the people 0 Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness More important to look to Jefferson and the Jeffersonians to understand what they consider the quotendsquot of government to be not the means 0 They considered the Why to be more important than the how 0 Why is there Government Not 39How does Government work Jefferson39s concept of a quotgood societyquot idealized the independent family farmer the selfsuf cient groups 0 Agrarianism caused him to believe that agriculture nurtured virtue 0 quotCorruption of morals among farmers is a phenomenon of which no age or nation has produced an examplequot farmers are incorruptible Jefferson39s ideal society was independent self succi cent family farmers Such conditions bring out the best in men cities quotrunning sores ulcers on the body politicquot that bring out the worst of people 0 Jefferson an environmentalist believed rural society encourage intelligence and morality weaken the inclination to corruption
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