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Chapter 7

by: Helen Shymanski

Chapter 7 P335

Helen Shymanski
GPA 3.7
Cognitive Psychology

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Cognitive Psychology
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Shymanski on Monday February 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to P335 at Indiana University taught by Gruenenfelder in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 02/23/15
Chapter 7 Attitudes and Attitude Change The Nature and Origin of Attitudes 1 Attitudes a Attitude evaluation of people objects and ideas b Formed through social transfer of information and direct contact 2 Origin a Cognitiver Based Attitude an attitude based primarily on people s beliefs about the properties of an attitude object i Classify the pluses and minuses of an object vacuum cleaner chalkboard b Affectiver Based Attitude An attitude based more on people s feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object i More emotional stem from values sensory reactions aesthetic cars chocolate 3 Formation a Classical Conditioning i Classical Conditioning the phenomenon whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus that does not until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the rst stimulus ii Pairing of two stimuli iii Neutral Stimulus becomes associated with the positivenegative outcomes of the appetitiveaversive stimulus iv Elicits those feelings v Maslow s Dogs salivating at the ring of the bell because of the conditioned stimulus b Operant Conditioning i Operant Conditioning The phenomenon whereby behaviors we freely choose to perform become more or less frequent depending on whether they are followed by a reward ii Act Reinforcement l Attitude 4 Prediction a LaPiere 1934 i LaPiere took his two Chinese friends on a crosscountry trip There was considerable prejudice against Asians during the 1930s which caused him to worry about his friends being refused service They were patrons at 251 establishments and only 1 refused to serve them ii Afterwards he wrote to these establishments asking if they would serve Chinese patrons More than 90 said they would not serve them but in reality they actually had b Attitudes are functional but their relations to behavior is complicated 5 Predicting Spontaneous Behaviors a Attitude Accessibility the strength of the association between an attitude object and its evaluation b Attitude Accessibility The strength of the association between an attitude object and a person s evaluation of that object measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object c When accessibility is high attitude comes to mind whenever you see or think about the attitude object d When accessibility is low attitude comes to mind more slowly e The degree of behavioral experience people have of that attitude object is one of the most important determents f The more direct experience people have with an attitude object the more accessible their attitude is and the more accessible their attitude is the more likely their spontaneous behaviors will be consistent with their attitudes 6 Theory of Planned Behavior a The idea that people s intentions are the best predictions of their deliberate behaviors which are determined by their attitudes toward speci c behaviors their subjective norms and their perceived behavioral control a 39 People39s speci c attitude toward the behavior not their general attitude L Attitude toward the behavior Subjective G norms abUUL wuw ULIICI people they care about will view the behavior in question kJ 39 The ease with which people believe they can perform the behavior Perceived L behavioral control Behavioral Intention 7 Attitude Change a b c Social In uence Even deeply held important beliefs can be changed How i Explicit Attitudes attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report ii Implicit Attitudes attitudes that are involuntary uncontrollable and at times unconscious 8 Persuasive Communications and Attitude Change a b c d The Yale Group 3 important factors of persuasion Persuasive Communication Communication advocating a particular side of an issue Yale Attitude Change Approach The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages focusing on the sources of the communication the nature of the communication and the nature of the audience Yale i Studied quotwho says what to whomquot question They looked at the communication itself the source of communication and the nature of the audience ii WHO Credible speakers persuade people more than speakers lacing in credibility attractive speakers persuade people more than unattractive speakers do iii WHAT People are more persuaded by messages that do not seem to be designed to in uence them iv TO WHOM An audience that is distracted during the persuasive communication will often be persuaded more than one that is not people low in intelligence tend to be more in uenceable than people high in intelligence and people with moderate self esteem tend to be more in uensable than people with low or high selfesteem people are particularly susceptible to attitude change during the impressionable ages of 18 to 25 Beyond those ages people s attitudes are more stable and resistant to change 9 The Elaboration Likelihood Model 1000 There are two ways in which attitudes can be changed Central route to persuasion need motivation opportunity Peripheral route to persuasion no motivation no opportunity Elaboration Likelihood Model A model explaining two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change centraly when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication and peripheraly when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics 10Central Route a The case in which people elaborate on a persuasive communication listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments which occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication b Strong arguments are more persuasive than weak arguments c Strong argument lead to less counterarguing than weak arguments d Change is long lasting 11Periphera Route a The case in which people do not elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by peripheral cues b Argument quality has no impact on persuasion counterarguing or thought positivity c Change does not last very long 12Personal Relevance a Need for Cognition A personality variable re ecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities b Asked students about Comprehensive Exams with the following conditions i Immediate or 10 years from now ii Source 14 year old or Princeton Professor iii Strong Arguments or weak arguments Immediate resulted in all Central Route 10years resulted in all Peripheral Route e Listerine was once only used after surgeries to sterilize wounds However after it was inherited by a new owner he saw the marketability He advertised the quotmedical termquot for bad breath halitosis which made it seem like a medical condition He targeted young women who were not married quotAlways a bridesmaid never a bridequot Therefore he used personal relevance to market his product to the masses instead ofjust doctors 13Fear and Persuasion a Fear Arousing Communications Persuasive message that attempts to change people s attitudes by arousing their fears i Attempts to change attitudes by arousing fear ii Only works it if is guided and small amounts of fear are elicited enough to motivate people to listen iii Smoking cessation advertisements on boxes 1 As of 2013 FDA rules call for all cigarette packs sold in the US to display pictures that warn about the dangers of smoking 2 People were shown a scary lm about the effects of smoking instructions about how to stop smoking or both an Those who were shown both had the biggest reduction in the number of cigarettes they smoked 14Resisting Persuasion a Attitude Inoculation i Cultural truisms quotbrush your teeth after every mealquot 1 2 opposing arguments and refutes them 2 2 opposing arguments with no refuting 3 2 weeks later they receive a strong message about why the truism is incorrect b HeuristicSystematic Model of Persuasion An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change either systematically processing the merits of the arguments or using mental shortcuts such as quotExperts are always rightquot c Attitude Inoculation Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position d Reactance Theory i Freedom is restricted ii Behavior is threatened iii Bathroom sign experiment 15Subliminal Advertising a Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived b They may in uence people s attitudes judgments and behaviors c Subliminal Messages Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless in uence people s judgments attitudes and behaviors i Subliminal messages are big business d Reactance Theory the idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused which they can reduce y performing the threatened behavior


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