BIOL 110 Exam 2
BIOL 110 Exam 2 Biol 110
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Istre on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 110 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Phyllis Griffard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
BIOL 110 Exam 2 CH 6.1 1. Define energy and distinguish between potential and kinetic energy. Energy: the ability to promote change or to do work Potential: the stored energy that a substance possesses due to its structure or location (EX chemical energy) Kinetic: energy associated with movement Types of energy: light (photosynthesis), heat, mechanical, chemical, and electrical/ion gradient 2. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics and discuss how they relate to living things. Thermodynamics: the study of interconversions First law: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or transformed (AKA the law of conservation of energy) Second law: the transfer of energy or the transformation of energy from one form to another increases the entropy of a system Entropy: the degree of disorder of a system; measurement of the randomness of molecules in a system When energy is converted from one form to another, some energy may become unusable by living organisms (EX chemical reaction releasing unusable heat) 3. Explain how the change in free energy determines the direction of a chemical reaction and how chemical reactions eventually reach a state of equilibrium. Free energy: the amount of available energy that can be used to do work Total energy: useable energy + unusable energy Enthalpy: total energy (H) Usable energy: free energy (G) Unusable energy: entropy (TS) H = G + TS G = H - TS Spontaneous reaction: one that occurs without being driven by an input of energy G < 0 : exergonic G > 0 : endergonic Chemical equilibrium: when the rate of formation of products equals the rate of formation reactants 4. Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions in terms of the energy of the reactants and products and the free energy change Exergonic: releases free energy and occurs spontaneously Endergonic: requires an addition of free energy; is not spontaneous 5. Describe how cells use the energy released by ATP hydrolysis to drive endergonic reactions The breakdown of ATP is endergonic The energy released is then used in an endergonic reaction (EX the combination of glucose and phosphate) 6.2 1. Explain how enzymes increase the rates of chemical reactions by lowering activation energy Catalyst: agent that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction Enzyme: a protein that acts as a catalyst Activation energy: an initial output of energy in a chemical reaction that allows the molecules to get close enough to cause a rearrangement od bonds Enzymes lower the activation energy by straining chemical bonds in the reactants so less energy is required to attain the transition state Transition state: a state in which original bonds have stretched their limit; once the state is reached, the reaction can proceed to the formation of products Enzymes also bind two reactants so they are close to each other and in a favorable orientation 2. Describe how enzymes bind their substrates with high specifity and undergo induced fit Active site: the location in an enzyme where a chemical reaction takes place Substrates: the reactant
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