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Lecture 13 Notes

by: Adrianna Minichiello

Lecture 13 Notes 74156

Adrianna Minichiello
GPA 4.0
Biology 230
Kimberly Tanner, Johnathan Knight

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This is Lecture 13 notes! On February 23rd
Biology 230
Kimberly Tanner, Johnathan Knight
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrianna Minichiello on Monday February 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 74156 at San Francisco State University taught by Kimberly Tanner, Johnathan Knight in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Biology 230 in Biology at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 02/23/15
Lecture Notes Class 13 February 23 2015 Agenda How was exam 1 Unpacking the Peanut Files Lecture on DNA mutations and DNA replications You Speak Biology 9 It is important to talk amongst your classmates in order to prepare for the future Information Flow Central DogmaGene Expression 2 di loid cells DNA 9 RNA 9 proteins p Inheritance From a parent cell to a daughter cells From one generation to another generation Clicker Question How does smoking cause cancer Unpacking the Peanut Files gtkGeorge Washington Carver Got a BS in 1894 and MS in 1896 in Agricultural Science from Iowa State University First African American staff member at Iowa State Rescued agriculture in the south with his studies of peanut cultivation and product development gtkEvidence Student Answers Peanut butter can cause cancer if it contains a toxin Fatty diets can cause cancer Aspergillus fungus can grow in your lungs Toxin can mutate the p53 gene but not enough to cause cancer Aspergillus grows on peanuts Liver cancer is common where peanuts are grown Aspergillus is a fungus that grows on nuts and grains in hot and humid environments The fungi produce alfatoxin OCH3 gtkExposure Maps Alfatoxin exposure is high in Mexico Western Africa China and Mongolia Liver cancer is high in Africa China Mongolia and Papua New Guinea Clicker Question How does alfatoxin cause cancer Assuming it does Lecture on DNA mutations and DNA replications Enzymes in the liver convert alfatoxin into a highly reactive molecule Enzymes are proteins so there is DNA that codes for it 9 mutation Alfatoxin binds to the Guanines G in DNA The result is called a the product of the covalent addition of a chemical mutagen to a nitrogenous base The bulky alfatoxin disrupts the helix In cigarette smoke the benxopyrene adduct also disrupts the helix The DNA sequence is still the same 9 no mutation yet How does an adduct cause mutations Before a cell divides the DNA must be copied replication A new identical DNA chain is made By the enzyme DNA polymerase The DNA strand is synthesized in the 5 3 directions DNA polymerase misspairs an A with the alfatoxin adduct G MUTATION So a G is paired With an A Mutations happen only in dividing cells While most mutations are harmless Tumor Suppressor gene p53 The guardian of the genome is particularly susceptible to the formation of alfatoxin DNA adducts Alfatoxin DNA adducts promote a G to T substitution in codon 249 of p53 The gene p53 is mutated Which is involved in 70 of cancers


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