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World History 1020, Week Ten Notes

by: Liv Taylor

World History 1020, Week Ten Notes HIST 1020 - 004

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 - 004 > World History 1020 Week Ten Notes
Liv Taylor
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About this Document

These notes are over the effects of WWII and leading up to the Cold War.
World History II
David C. Carter
Class Notes
WWII, Cold, War, world, history
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
April  18-­‐22,  2016  (Week  Ten)   Dr.  David  Carter   World  History  1020       The  Three-­‐World  Order  WTWA  Chapter  20     Competing  blocs   -­‐  The  breakup  of  Europe’s  empires  and  the  demise  of  European  world  leadership  led   to  the  division  of  the  world  into  three  blocs     The  United  States  and  Soviet  Union  –  superpowers   -­‐  Size   -­‐  Possession  of  atomic  weapons   -­‐  Each  embodied  a  model  of  civilization  that  could  be  applied  globally   -­‐ Both  believed  their  respective  ideologies  had  universal  application   -­‐ United  states:  liberal  capitalism   -­‐ Soviet  Union  –  communism   -­‐ Two  economic  worldviews  that’s  hard  to  compromise  –  you  must  pick  one  or   the  other   -­‐ “The  Third  World”  was  the  third  bloc  of  nations  that  wouldn’t  pick  a  side   (“nonaligned  nations”  or  “the  developing  world”)   -­‐ The  People’s  Republic  of  China  goes  from  nationalism  to  communism   -­‐ Nationalists  set  up  a  rival  Chinese  government  to  communism  on  the  island   of  Taiwan   -­‐ Even  though  they  were  both  communist,  the  Soviet  Union  and  China  were   drastically  different,  opposed  to  popular  belief   -­‐  WWII  wasn’t  just  a  precursor  to  The  Cold  War   -­‐  The  Big  Three  of  WWII:  FDR,  Stalin  and  Churchill     -­‐  Churchill  (and  Truman)  believed  that  the  more  Germans  and  Russians  kill  each   other,  the  better  things  are     -­‐  Third  World  countries  fought  internal  wars  over  the  legacy  of  colonialism   Internally  and  externally  produced  tensions  and  conflicts  challenged  the  three-­‐ world  order     WWII  and  its  aftermath   -­‐  By  the  late  1930s,  German  and  Japanese  ambitions  to  expand  and  to  become   colonial  powers  like  Britain,  France  and  the  U.S>,  brought  these  conservative   dictatorships  into  conflict  with  France,  Britain  the  Soviet  Union,  and  eventually,  the   United  States   -­‐  WWII  was  more  global  in  scope  and  in  context  than  WWI   -­‐  Mein  Kampf  =  Hitler’s  concept  of  lefinsraum  and  German  victimization  from  WWI   -­‐  Non-­‐aggression  pact  between  Germany  and  the  Soviet  Union   -­‐  The  French  thought  WWII  would  be  like  WWI,  so  they  construct  the  Maginot  Line,   which  would  have  been  extremely  beneficial  in  WWI,  but  not  WWII   -­‐  Germany  on  the  other  hand,  prepares  for  a  new  war  (technological  advances,  new   military  tactics,  etc.)   -­‐  WWII  involves  a  lot  more  geographical  areas,  not  just  European-­‐focused  like  WWI   -­‐  WWII  completely  destroys  the  line  between  civilians  and  soldiers   -­‐  The  acts  of  barbarism  robbed  Europe  of  any  lingering  claims  to  cultural  superiority   -­‐  In  the  war’s  wake,  anticolonial  movements  successfully  pressed  their  claims  for   national  self-­‐determination   -­‐  Both  sides  dehumanize  their  enemies  –  war  brings  out  the  worst  of  all  sides     The  war  in  Europe   -­‐  The  war  began  with  Hitler’s  invasion  on  Poland  in  September  1939  and  Britain  and   France’s  decision  to  oppose  it  militarily     Blitzkrieg  and  resistance   -­‐  Within  two  years,  Germany  and  Italy  controlled  virtually  all  of  Western  Europe   -­‐  The  German  tactic  of  blitzkrieg,  or  lightning  war,  proved  decisive   -­‐  Britain  escaped  conquest,  but  German  planes  waged  aerial  war  on  British  cities   -­‐  The  Munich  Conference  (October  1938)  –  Hitler  demands  that  Czech’s  relinquish   Sudetenland  to  Germany,  which  leads  to  a  huge  conflict  between  Hitler  and   Chamberlain     -­‐  Chamberlain’s  solution  was  called  Appeasement.  Desperate  for  peace,  he  gives  up   that  part  of  Czechoslovakia  and  Hitler  is  “content”   -­‐  Switzerland  remained  “neutral”  but  still  allowed  Germany  to  use  their   underground  tunnels  for  transportation   -­‐  Hitler  surpassed  any  conqueror   -­‐  German’s  attack  Britain’s  morale,  but  they  don’t  give  in,  making  Blitz  a  statement   made  by  Britain  that  they’re  not  backing  down   -­‐  In  June  1941,  the  Germans  invaded  and  nearly  conquered  the  Soviet  Union   -­‐  Nazi  occupation  brought  terror  and  displacement  to  Europe   -­‐  The  war  required  more  laborers;  with  men  fighting,  women  became  highly  sought   after  for  the  workforce   -­‐  Twelve  million  foreign  laborers  were  brought  to  Germany  for  war  production   goods   -­‐  Before  concentration  camps,  the  Germans  would  kill  undesirables,  at  first,  they   would  line  them  up  and  shoot  them  but  then  realized  it  took  too  much  ammunition,   so  they  would  put  them  in  trucks  and  reroute  the  exhaust  supply  -­‐  leading  to  the   idea  of  gas  chambers     -­‐  The  German  offensive  halted  in  the  SU  with  defeat  at  the  battle  of  Stalingrad  in   1942   -­‐  For  the  next  two  years,  the  Red  Army  slowly  forced  German  troops  from  Eastern   Europe   -­‐  In  May  1945,  Germany  surrendered  unconditionally  after  Hitler’s  suicide     The  bitter  costs  of  war   -­‐  Soviets  lost  up  to  20  million  people     -­‐  Aerial  bombings  brought  unprecedented  hardships   -­‐  The  Holocaust   -­‐  Atomic  warfare     The  Pacific  War   Japanese  efforts  to  expand   -­‐  Throughout  the  1930s,  Japan  had  extended  its  influence  in  Asia   -­‐  In  1931,  Japan  conquered  Manchuria     -­‐  In  1937,  Japan  conquered  much  of  coastal  China   -­‐  During  this  war,  Japanese  troops  inflicted  terror  on  the  Chinese  population,  the   most  notorious  example  being  the  “Rape  of  Nanking”     -­‐  The  U.S.  became  the  chief  obstacle  to  Japanese  expansion;  as  a  result,  Japan   launched  an  attack  on  Pearl  Harbor   -­‐  The  strategy  backfired  and  the  U.S.  quickly  joined  in  WWII   -­‐  Justified  its  actions  as  anticolonial  and  “pan-­‐Asian”     -­‐  Millions  were  drafted  for  labor  and  many  Korean  women  were  forced  to  be   prostitutes     Allied  advances  and  the  atomic  bomb   -­‐  American  mobilization  tilted  the  balance  of  power  in  the  Pacific  against  Japan  in   1943   -­‐  In  1945,  Truman  authorized  the  use  of  atomic  weapons   -­‐  Japan  surrendered  unconditionally  a  few  days  after  the  bombs  destroyed   Hiroshima  and  Nagasaki       -­‐  In  the  war,  African-­‐Americans  were  still  discriminated  against  and  segregated   The  whole  war  was  a  war  about  RACE   Rape  gets  turned  into  an  instrument  of  warfare  on  all  sides     The  beginning  of  the  Cold  War   -­‐  WWII  left  Europe  in  ruins   -­‐  Physically  the  continent  was  a  wreck,  and  psychologically  old  regimes  had  lost   credibility   -­‐  Socialism  and  Soviet-­‐style  communism  attracted  wide  support     Rebuilding  Europe     -­‐  The  principal  Allies  in  the  fight  against  Hitler  (Soviet  Union,  U.S.  and  Great  Britain)   distrusted  each  other  and  disputed  how  to  address  Europe’s  postwar  recovery   -­‐  The  U.S.  decided  to  “contain”  Soviet  influence  where  it  already  existed  in  Eastern   Europe,  initiating  a  Cold  War  between  the  former  allies   -­‐  After  the  Berlin  Airlift  of  1948-­‐1949,  Germany  was  divided  into  mutually  hostile   states,  each  taking  a  different  side  in  the  Cold  War   -­‐  Americans  realize  that  the  Soviet  Union  is  inherently  aggressive  and  has  to  be   contained  (Keenan  Telegram)   -­‐  The  Iron  Curtain  is  a  metaphor  used  by  Churchill  to  describe  the  separation   between  European  countries  caused  by  the  Soviet  Union   -­‐  The  origins  of  the  Cold  War  was  that  “one  side  saw  offense  (U.S.)  where  the  other   side  saw  defense  (Soviet  Union)”   -­‐  To  shore  up  democratic  governments  and  capitalist  economies  in  Western  Europe,   President  Truman  announced  the  Truman  Doctrine  and  the  Marshall  Plan  in  1947,   which  promised  massive  economic  and  military  aid   -­‐  These  efforts  culminated  in  the  formation  of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty   Organization  (NATO)  in1949,  a  military  alliance  between  Western  Europe  and   North  America  against  the  Soviet  Union   -­‐  The  Marshall  Plan  =  economic  aid       -­‐  Some  people  thought  it  was  selfless  while  others  thought  it  was  solely  based  on   self-­‐interest   -­‐  The  Truman  Doctrine  =  military  aid     -­‐  Both  the  Marshall  Plan  and  the  Truman  Doctrine  are  to  halves  of  one  whole  that,   while  extremely  expensive,  is  extremely  effective   -­‐  To  Stalin,  containment  looked  like  a  direct  threat   -­‐  Stalin  believed  the  Soviet  Union  deserved  to  be  dominant  in  Eastern  Europe  to   protect  its  postwar  security   -­‐  In  1955,  the  Soviet  Union  responded  to  the  Western  Alliance  with  a  military   alliance  (The  Warsaw  pact)  between  itself  and  the  nations  it  dominated  after  the   war  in  Eastern  Europe   -­‐  The  United  Nations  is  created  from  the  “ashes”  of  the  League  of  Nations     The  nuclear  age   -­‐  The  arms  race  led  to  stockpiling  of  nuclear  weapons  and  multiple  delivery  systems   on  both  sides   -­‐  These  armories  did  prevent  all-­‐out  direct  war  between  the  two  antagonists   U.S.  vs.  Soviet  Union   -­‐  The  Nuclear  Triad  (air,  underground  and  submarine)   -­‐  Open  confrontation  emerged  in  Asia,  where  there  were  no  well-­‐defined  Soviet  and   -­‐  American  spheres,  such  as  existed  in  Europe  after  WWII   -­‐  The  Korean  War  embroiled  American,  North  Korean,  South  Korean  and  Chinese   troops  in  a  contest  to  control  the  Korean  peninsula  between  1953-­‐1956   -­‐  “The  Korean  Conflict”  because  Congress  never  declared  it  as  a  war   -­‐  General  Douglas  MacArthur   -­‐  In  1951,  the  U.S.  signed  a  peace  treaty  with  Japan,  whereby  the  U.S.  committed   itself  to  defending  Japan  incase  of  invasion     Decolonization     • After  the  war,  anticolonial  leaders  set  about  dismantling  the  European  order   using  the  lessons  of  mass  politicization  and  mass  mobilization  developed  in   the  1920s  and  1930s     o Three  patterns  of  decolonization  and  nation  building  emerged   § Civil  war  such  as  in  China     o Negotiated  independence  in  India  and  much  of  Africa   • Anticolonial  visions  of  modern  life   o Chinese  nationalism     § China  was  not  formally  colonized,  but  its  sovereignty  was   compromised   • Chinese  nationalists  thus  identified  ridding  the  nation  of   foreign  domination  as  their  number  one  priority   § The  fall  of  the  Qing  dynasty  in  1911  led  to  high  hopes  among   nationalists  that  a  new  modern  nation  would  emerge   • Quickly,  the  new  Chinese  government  disintegrated  as   military  men     § In  1919,  the  May  Fourth  Movement  blossomed  in  urban  areas   to  protest  the  Paris  Peace  Conference’s  award  of  Germany’s   concession  rights  in  Shandong  to  Japan     • Sun  Yat-­‐sen  &  Chaing  Kai-­‐shek       • Japan  issued  21  demands  (War  lord)     • May  Fourth  Movement  doesn’t  succeed  but  sets  stage   for  Chinese  citizens  looking  to  Russia  for  possible   reform     § Beneficiaries  of  this  emerging  nationalism  was  the  Guomidang,   founded  by  Sun  Yat-­‐sen   • Looking  to  the  Russian  Revolution  as  an  example,  Sun   allowed     § After  Sun’s  death  in  1925.  Leadership  of  the  Guomidang  passed   Chiang  Kai-­‐shek     • Chiang  launched  a  military  campaign  to  unify  the   country  under  Guomidang  leadership   • His  efforts  were  a  partial  success  and  he  formed       § Chiang  attempted  to  mobilize  the  Chinese  masses  behind  his   effort  into  the  1930s     • The  New  Life  Movement,  launched  in  1934,  attempted     o Peasant  populism  in  China:  White  Wolf     § Guomidang  leadership  viewed  the  peasantry  as  backward  and   bereft  of  revolutionary.     • The  Chinese  Revolution   o After  WWII,  the  Chinese  communist  party  vowed  to  achieve  full   political  and  economic  independence     o The  communist  party  had  gained  momentum  over  two  decades   § Soon  Mao  Zedong  took  over  the  leadership  of  the  party   • In  1934,  the  communists  embarked  on  a  6,000  mile   “Long  March”  to  the  northwest  of  the  country  to  escape   further  attacks  by  the  Nationalists     § Under  Mao,  the  party  reached  out  to  the  vast  rural  population   to  fight  the  Japanese   • Mao’s  emphasis  on  a  peasant  revolution  helped  him  win   broad  support  in  China  and  served  as  a  model  for  other   Third  World  revolutionaries  after  1945     • Mao  emphasized  women’s  liberation     § After  the  Japanese  surrender  in  1945,  the  communists  and  the   Nationalists  commenced  a  bloody  civil  war     • The  nationalists,  having  lost  credibility  after  their  losses   to  the  Japanese  and  because  of  postwar  corruption,   proved  no  match  for  communist  forces  and  fled  to  the   island  of  Taiwan  in  1949   • Negotiated  independence  in  India  and  Africa   o In  India  and  parts  of  Africa,  the  British  and  the  French,  realizing  that   only  violent  coercion  would  sustain  their  empires  in  the  postwar  era,   withdrew  in  an  orderly  manner   • Anticolonial  visions  of  modern  life     o Imagining  an  Indian  nation     § Opposition  in  India  to  British  rule  was  more  advanced  than  in   Africa   § After  the  war,  the  British  expanded  the  franchise     § During  the  1920s  and  1930s  ,  Mohandes  Gandhi  transformed   the  Indian  National  Congress  Party  into  a  mass  party  and  an   anticolonial  movement   o Gandhi  and  nonviolent  resistance     § Gandhi  was  Western-­‐  educated     § Developed  a  philosophy  of  satyagraha,  or  nonviolent  resistance,   that  he  employed  against  the  British  while  living  in  South   Africa   § In  1919,  the  British  massacred  hundreds  of  Indians  protesting   policies  at  Amritsar     § Gandhi  and  others  called  for  noncooperation  and  boycotts   § He  began  to  turn  the  Indian  National  Congress  away  from  an   elite  institution  by  opening  it  to  anyone  who  could  pay  dues   § In  1930,  Gandhi  organized  an  act  of  civil  disobedience  over  the   government  monopoly  of  salt     • He  and  supporters  marched  to  the  sea  to  gather  salt  for   free   • Journalists  covered  the  march  extensively     • Gandhi’s  efforts  inspired  many  other  acts  of   noncooperation  and  nonviolent  protest     o A  divided  anticolonial  movement     § Not  all  in  the  Congress  Party  or  in  other  anticolonial   organizations  shared  his  views   • Although  he  supported  Gandhi                        


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