LARC 1160 Week 12 Notes
LARC 1160 Week 12 Notes LARCH 1160
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Walker on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LARCH 1160 at Clemson University taught by Dr.Hala Nassar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see History of Landscape Architcture in Landscape Architecture at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
History of Landscape Architecture Development of Transportation and Land Tenure System (Interior US) Wilderness and Frontier - Wilderness and frontier are two concepts/ terms used by euroamericans to describe the American landscape - Wilderness- revers to those areas where Euroamericans had no control over the land use and which were not subject to European system of land tenure - Frontier- is the area in which Euroamericans and native Americans were contending for land control, and to which the Europeans system of land tenure was in the process of being applied Role of Transportation in settlement process - Innovation of different transportation systems was very important to the transition from wilderness through frontier to settlements - Transportation systems were only second to agriculture in their lasting effect on the American landscape o Road Travel o Water Travel o Rail Road Travel Road Travel - The earliest inland transportation were Roads and Rivers - Roads often followed Native American trails - Roads were important in area with no navithble thverth - Some of the important roads of the 17 , 18 , 19 centuries were o The Cumberland Road o El Camino Real o Coastal Road o Oregon/California Trail o Santa Fe Trail o Natchez Trace - First graded road was the Lancaster Turnpike begun in 1792. Pay as you go turnpikes - Plank or Corduroy roads were constructed using milled lumber or halved logs - The first government built road was the Cumberland, or National Road which begun in 1812 - The first great western Route was the Santa Fe Trail Water Travel - Water travel developed simultaneously with roads, but expanded much faster due to: o Invention of the steam engine in 1800s o Need for long distance transportation system o Need to transport heavy cargo - Rivers were used for transportation, their use was limited because they were short and shallow - Building canals were then intended to rectify the problems with rivers - Canals were closed water systems in which water flow was controlled by gates Characteristics of Canals - Straight - Narrow (30-40 feet) - Shallow (4 feel) - Stone lined - The grade was kept level All canals collected tolls based on cargo weight and number of passengers Rail Travel - Railroad development in the US form the industrial revolution from 1810-50 to the settlement of the west s1850-1890 - North and Midwest networks linked everyday major city by 1860 with over 80 percent of Midwest farms within 5 miles of a railway - The us government granted land (1855-71) to railways in the uninhabited West to spread of development and trade - Railroads replaced many canals, turnpikes, and steamboats y the 1870s because they were generally safer, more efficient, and all weather - By 1880- 17,800 freight locomotives and 22.200 passenger locomotives. It was the largest employer outside of agriculture Landscape change based in development of transportation system - Implication of transportation on land use, planning, and design - The shape of urban growth was associated with type of transportation - Large road towns- usually had a pattern with density radiating outwards from the main crossroads - Small road towns- often had no secondary street. The pattern was linear along the main street - River towns- were linear, but densely populated along the wharf areas - Central towns- were among the first to have sites selected in an organized way. Linear design - the shape of urban growth was associated with type of transportation - Rail road towns- usually had a pattern with density radiating outwards from the main crossroads - They were linear, flat, with land gridded on either side, given their development after the land survey system adoption - Rail Road companies generally were granted 1 mile length of land on either side of the rail line, which was sold to settlers and investors Land Tenure system - Native Americans generally did not own the land. Their tenure tended to keep the landscape entire - However, Europeans divided the land for individual ownership which destroyed the wholeness of the natural landscape - Two major systems of land survey were used - Metes and buns - Public land survey Metes and bounds - Land boundaries were designed through site specific combination of o Natural landmarks o Human made landmarks o Distances o Angles o Bearings o Preexisting land ownership description - Advantages o Tract size could be adjusted to accommodate for poor site conditions o The system allowed for natural divides, such as streams and ridges, to be used as property lines - Disadvantages o Imprecision of the landmarks make fraud possible o Trees dies, iron posts removed, streams changed course, factors like that caused dispute Factors leading to change from Metes and Bounds to Public Survey System - Desire to settle the north American continent rapidly - The philosophical influence of the enlightenment, which emphasized the rational approach to organization of the natural world Public Land Survey - “An absolute land location system based on Cartesian geometry” - System developed under Thomas Jefferson’s guidance - Characteristics o All survey lines run north- south or east west o Tracts referenced by these lines are of fixed sizes o Reference lines running north- south are known as principal meridians o Reference lines running east-west are known as base-line - Advantages o Allowed for fast and efficient measuring and recording of land o All tracts had one legal description o Uniform acreage was guaranteed for all settles - Disadvantages o Earths curvature required some adjustment o Importance of naturally occurring boundaries were ignored o Fixed size of tracts ignored the carrying capacity of different classes of land o The grid could not be easily adjusted to accommodate for later systems appended to it (ex. Rail road) o The system changed the human made world into a monotonous grid History of Landscape Architecture Olmsted and Central Park Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) - ”The founder of American landscape Architecture and the nation’s foremost park maker” by the National Park Service o His life o Beginning of his career with central park o Central park o Beyond central park Olmstead, before Central Park - Born in Hartford, Conn to a wealthy merchant and the daughter of a farmer - At the age o f14, sumac poisoning seriously affected Olmstead’s eyesight and limited his education - He attended Phillips Academy, he studied agricultural science and engineering at Yale briefly - China (1843)- - Worked on his farm in Connecticut before he moved to Staten island to work on a farm that his father purchased for him - Walking tour of England- Birkenhead- Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England (1852) - Journalist- traveled the southern states- wrote about slavery Olmstead; Central Park - First park Act 1851, allowing NYC to purchase land- Jones Wood- Bryant advocating for more land- Amended Park Act_ more land purchased by 1854 - Olmsted applies to superintendency position and appointed in 1857 - Rough first day on the job- Chief Engineer Egbert Viele - Central park Competition public announcement in 1857 - Olmstead and Vaux competition entry - Plan #33 titles Greensward won first prize - Board of Commissions appoint Olmstead “Chief Executive officer who shall be styled the Architect in Chief of the Central Park” Site and Requirements - Site o Narrow and challenging as Manhattan island itself (1X5) - Requirements o Solving circulation o Open spaces o Various lakes o Reservoirs - Olmstead advocates that the park always be treated “as a whole” Design Concept and Characteristics - Purpose- a public park to be owned and enjoyed by people of all classes - Circulation- connecting the park with the surroundings and solving the travers road issue was Olmstead and Vaux main/winning concept - Traverse road (east-west going through the park) are sunken below the park grade and concealed with heavy planting - Separate circulation systems for pedestrians, horseback riders, and pleasure vehicles - Concept- 100% design landscape (nothing natural) - Influence of the Romantic movement and Olmsted visits to the English parks (Birkenhead) - Artistic concept and the creation of a pastoral effect - Open spaces, different activates, and connectivity between different parts (‘park as a whole”) - Various artificial lakes, extensive walking tracks, two ice rinks, wildlife sanctuary, children playgrounds, open lawn for different sports Impact of Central Park - Central park was pivotal in establishing the multifaceted profession of Landscape Architecture - Through publicity that both park and designers received, it popularized the professional services that LA can offer and created great demand nation wide - It exhibited that function as well as aesthetics are important in the design of outdoor spaces - Central park began an era of park building across the continent - Ingenerated a drive for urban planning to improve the livability of cities - It started an era of landscape architecture design of campus grounds, institutional grounds, cemeteries, and resource management Olmsted’s other landscape designs include: - Yosemite; First state park - Niagara Reservation at Niagara Falls - Prospect Park, Brooklyn - Buffalo, NY Park system - Chicago’s Riverside subdivision - Milwaukee, Wisconsin Grand Necklace Parks - Boston’s Emerald Necklace - Stanford University Campus
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