April 19 & 21: Schizophrenia & Attitudes
April 19 & 21: Schizophrenia & Attitudes Psyc 2010-003
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Chong Hyon Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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April 19, 2016 Schizophrenia Disturbed Perceptions A Schizophrenic person may perceive things that are not there (hallucinations) Such hallucinations are auditory and lesser visual, somatosensory, olfactory, or gustatory Inappropriate Emotions and Actions A schizophrenic person may laugh at the news of someone dying or show no emotion at all (flat affect) Patients with schizophrenia may continually rub an arm, rock a chair, or remain motionless for hours (catatonia) Symptoms Positive Symptoms: the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or delusional talking) Negative Symptoms: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies) Other Biological Factors Possible abnormalities in brain chemistry, especially in neurotransmitter systems that use dopamine Possible neuro-developmental abnormalities o Disruptions in brain development from before birth through childhood, when brain is growing and maturing o Schizophrenia has also been observed in individuals who contracted a viral infection (flu) during the middle of their fetal development Psychological Factors Psychological factors alone are NOT considered to be primary causes of schizophrenia But psychological processes and social influences can contribute to appearance of schizophrenia and influence its course o Maladaptive learning experiences—cause lots of stress o Stressful family communication patterns—inconsistent family patterns o A general atmosphere of hostility and confused communication appears to increase likelihood of schizophrenia Onset and Development Nearly 1/100 suffer from schizophrenia, and throughout the world over 24 million people suffer from this disease Strikes young people as they mature into adults Affects men and women equally, but men suffer from it more severely than women Chronic and Acute When schizophrenia is slow to develop (chronic/process) recovery is doubtful o Usually display negative symptoms When schizophrenia rapidly develops (acute/relative) recovery is better o Usually show positive symptoms Genetics Strong genetic relationship for schizophrenia and genetic similarity Abnormal Brain Activity Brain scans show abnormal activity in the frontal cortex, thalamus, and amygdala of schizophrenic patients Abnormal Brain Morphology Schizophrenia patients may exhibit morphological changes in the brain like enlargement of fluid-filled ventricles Psychological Factors Psychological and environmental factors can trigger schizophrenia if the individual is genetically predisposed 2 of 4 Genian quadruplets have schizophrenia Social Psychology Studies the interaction of people Explaining Behavior Attribution o The process we go through to explain the causes of behavior Attributions are important because they help us to o Understand someone’s behavior o Predict someone’s future behavior o Control the situation if it should occur again Situational Attribution: blame it on something outside of that person (situation) o Tolerant Reaction Dispositional Attribution: blaming the behavior on something about the person o Unfavorable Reaction Fundamental Attribution Error o The tendency to over-attribute the behavior of others to internal factors o Ex: the student who got a D on the test is not very smart (this is an internal attribution) Other potential, external reasons: little sleep, illness Biases in Attribution Blaming the Victim o When we try to explain uncomfortable events (murders, rapes, etc) we tend to look for internal causes increases “She was raped because she dressed too sexy” o Allows us to maintain our belief in a “just world” (bad things happen to bad people; good things happen to good people) QUIZ 1. Anxiety is considered disordered if it is a. Persistent and distressing b. Hard to control c. Genetically influenced d. A biopsychosocial phenomenon ANSWER: A 2. A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the a. DID b. Medical model c. DSM-IV-TR d. Biopsychosocial approach ANSWER: C 3. Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from a. A dissociative disorder b. Antisocial personality disorder c. A mood disorder d. Agoraphobia ANSWER: C 4. An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by a. Linkage analysis b. A biopsychosocial approach c. The medical model d. The learning perspective ANSWER: B 5. Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching her to see how long it takes her to grow another one. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from a. Agoraphobia b. Bipolar disorder c. Schizophrenia d. Dissociative identity disorder ANSWER: C 6. Which of the following is true of the medical model? a. In recent years, it has been in large part discredited. b. It views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable. c. It emphasizes the role of psychological factors in disorders over that of physiological factors d. It focuses on cognitive factors ANSWER: B 7. One cluster of personality disorders marked by dramatic or impulsive behaviors is exemplified by the _____ personality disorder. a. Avoidant b. Schizoid c. Catatonic d. Histrionic ANSWER: B 8. Many psychologists believe the disorganized thoughts of people with schizophrenia result from a breakdown in a. Selective attention b. Memory storage c. Motivation d. Memory retrieval ANSWER: A 9. Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by a. A persistent, irrational fear of people b. Episodes of intense autonomic nervous system arousal c. Disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity d. A lack of guilt feelings ANSWER: D 10. Low levels of anxiety are most characteristic of a. Antisocial personality disorder b. Dissociative identity disorder c. Obsessive-compulsive disorder d. Major depressive disorder ANSWER: A Attitudes April 21, 2016 The tendency to think, feel, or act positively or negatively toward objects in our environment Attitudes seen as having three components o Cognitive component—what you think about a particular topic o Emotional, or affective, component—how you feel about that topic o Behavioral component—what are your actions in relation to that topic Components of an Attitude and Assessment Methods Cognitive component (belief)—paper and pencil tests (questionnaires) Affective component (feeling)—physiological indices (heart rate, GSR) Behavioral component (action)—directly observed behaviors Actions can affect attitudes Not only do people stand for what they believe in (attitude), they start believing in what they stand for Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking (beliefs) What happens when attitude does not match behavior? Cognitive Dissonance Theory We want our thoughts, beliefs, behavior, and attitudes to be consistent If they are different (attitudes do not match behavior) this leads to cognitive dissonance o Leads to an uncomfortable “feeling” A state of cognitive dissonance can lead to two outcomes: change behavior or change attitude Dissonance study: participants did a very boring task (turning wooden pegs) o Group one: paid $20 to lie and tell other people in waiting room that the boring task was fun—had no dissonance bc paid a lot, so they did not have a problem lying o Group two: paid $1 to lie and tell the other people in waiting room that the boring task was fun—dissonance led to a change in attitude Cognitive dissonance: awareness that attitude and behavior are inconsistent Can change attitude to resolve cognitive dissonance Changing Attitudes Persuasion cues o Expertise and credibility of the communicator: people considered more expert or more credible are better at changing attitudes o Attractiveness of communicator: more physically attractive people are better at changing your attitudes o Emotionally arousing messages: arousing fear and anxiety is a great way to persuade people, especially if you give them a way to get out of the fear or anxiety (“vote for me”) o Repeating the message: simply being repeatedly exposed to a message may change your view How/Why Attitudes Change How deeply we think about the message? Low elaboration o NO information is presented o We use the persuasion cues to decide o This is the peripheral route to persuasion High elaboration o We think deeply about the content of the message o Lots of information is provided and we pay attention to it o This is the central route to persuasion Social Influence The process by which the words or actions of other people directly or indirectly affect other people’s behavior Affects your o Attitudes o Beliefs o Decisions o Emotions o Behavior (what you watch, wear, eat, etc) Conformity and Obedience o Behavior is contagious, modeled by one followed by another o We follow behaviors of others to conform o Other behaviors may be an expression of compliance (obedience) toward authority The Chameleon Effect o Conformity: adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Real world social influence o In the eight days following the Columbine shootings—every state except Vermont reported increased school violence (copycat crimes) o After a famous suicide (Marilyn Monroe) the number of suicides in the US significantly increased Group pressure and conformity o Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard o An influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality When do people conform? o When situations are ambiguous or uncertain o When the majority is unanimous o As the group gets larger, but only to a point o Despite initial research findings, there are no gender differences in conformity Making People Comply o Foot-in-the-door technique A person initially agrees to a small request and then is presented with gradually larger requests Cognitive dissonance o Door-in-the-face procedure An initial request is made that is likely to be denied, then the real request is made “Please give $100. I know that is a lot of money, OK, how about $10?” The appearance of compromise o Low-ball approach After a person agrees to a request, the cost of fulfilling the request is increased “You can have the car for $15k. With taxes and add- ons, its $20k” QUIZ 1. One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is a. An expressionless face b. Loud and meaningless talking c. Inappropriate laughter d. Uncontrollable outbursts of rage ANSWER: A 2. Schizophrenia is associated with an excess of receptors for a. Nonrepinephrine b. Dopamine c. Serotonin d. Acetylcholine ANSWER: B 3. Schizophrenia is said to be chronic when a. It is responsive to drug therapy b. It is accompanied by hallucinations c. It develops slowly d. Recovery is likely even without professional help ANSWER: C 4. The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the a. Just-world phenomenon b. Phenomenon of ingroup bias c. Fundamental attribution error d. Mirror-image perception principle ANSWER: A 5. Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that a. There is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia b. Almost anybody will develop schizophrenia if exposed to extensive environment stress c. Schizophrenia patients suffer from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter serotonin d. If adopted children’s adoptive parents have schizophrenia, they will too ANSWER: A 6. Symptoms of schizophrenia begin to appear at a median age of about a. 5 b. 12 c. 20 d. 32 ANSWER: C 7. Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. Mr. Hoffman’s behavior is most indicative of a. Obsessive compulsive disorder b. Antisocial personality disorder c. Mania d. Panic disorder ANSWER: C 8. Research evidence links the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia to ______ during prenatal development a. Maternal stress b. A viral infection contracted c. Abnormal levels of certain hormones d. The weight of the unborn child ANSWER: B 9. Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgement best illustrates a. The mere exposure effect b. Group polarization c. Deinviduation d. The fundamental attribution error ANSWER: D