Weekly notes for BIOS 2250
Weekly notes for BIOS 2250 Bios 2250
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by hw767714 on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bios 2250 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Sugiyama in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Human Society in Biology at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 04/22/16
BIOS 2250 The risk of nondisjunction and maternal age increases rapidly after 35 years of maternal age. A large number of trisomy babies are from mothers 35 years and older. About 1/3 of pregnancies at age 42 and older result in trisomy. Maternal age is a risk factor because the “maternal selection” may become less effective as the mother ages. Maternal selection refers to the natural process the body goes through when a genetically impaired child is conceived. Since the mother’s eggs stay in metaphase-1 until they are ready to ovulate, an older mother’s egg can have a longer arrest at metaphase-1 and in return can cause non- disjunction. The production of sperm is very different from the production of the egg. Sperm production starts at puberty and occurs continuously throughout a man’s life. The maternal selection hypothesis states that if a growing embryo is completely healthy, it will implant itself in the mother’s uterus. Many severe genetic diseases will be rejected by the mother’s body and result in a miscarriage. As a woman gets older, her maternal selection gets worse. There are many other chromosomal aberrations. ▬ Deletions are the loss of chromosome material ▬ Translocations = the exchange of chromosomal segments between non homologous chromosomes ▬ Uniparental disomy is when two of the chromosomes come from the same parent ▬ Fragile sites on a chromosome Translocation can cause heritable Downs syndrome in some cases. A translocation of chromosome 21 can cause an individual to end up with 3 copies of chromosome 21 but still only 46 chromosomes. “Nuclein” is the name that Miescher to chemical DNA in the nucleus. Protein – usually a very big molecule that is relatively neutrally charged. Acid hydrolysis produces nucleotides BIOS 2250 DNA – A big, negatively charged molecule. Something like an acid. Acid hydrolysis produces nucleotides. A smooth strain is a deadly strain while a rough strain is not deadly. Boiling a smooth strain can kill it so it is no longer deadly. If you combine a dead smooth strain and a rough strain, the two end up killing the animal it is placed into. Something about the rough and dead smooth strains together make the live rough strain into a smooth strain.
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