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Chapter 14

by: Stephanie De Angelis

Chapter 14 MGT 250

Stephanie De Angelis

GPA 3.1

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Chapter 14 notes
Managerial and Organizational Concepts
Professor Bhandari
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie De Angelis on Friday April 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 250 at Pace University - New York taught by Professor Bhandari in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Managerial and Organizational Concepts in Business, management at Pace University - New York.


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Date Created: 04/22/16
Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader Vocabulary: Behavioral Leadership Approaches: attempt to determine the unique behaviors displayed by  effective leaders Charisma: a form of interpersonal attraction that inspires acceptance and support Charismatic Leadership: assumed to be an individual inspirational and motivational  characteristic of particular leaders Coercive Power: results from managers’ authority to punish their subordinates Consideration: leader behavior that is concerned with group members’ needs and desires and that is directed at creating mutual respect or trust Contingency Leadership Model: determines if a leader’s style is task­oriented or relationship­ oriented and if that style is effective for the situation at hand E­leadership: can involve one­to­one, one­to­many, within­group and between­group and  collective interactions via information technology  Empowering Leadership: the extent to which a leader creates perceptions of psychological  empowerment in others Expert Power: power resulting from one’s specialized information or expertise Full­range Leadership: suggests that leadership behavior varies along a full range of leadership  styles, from passive (Laissez­faire) “leadership” at one extreme, through transactional leadership, to transformational leadership at the other extreme  Initiating­structure Leadership: behavior that organizes and defines – that is, “initiates the  structure for” – what employees should be doing to maximize output Laisse­faire Leadership: a form of “leadership” characterized by a general failure to take  responsibility for leading Leader­member Exchange Model of Leadership: emphasizes that leaders have different sorts of  relationships with different subordinates Leadership: the ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals Legitimate Power: power that results from managers’ formal positions within the organization Machiavellianism: a cynical view of human nature and condones opportunistic and unethical  ways of manipulating people, putting results over principles Managerial Leadership: the process of influence others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared  objectives Narcissism: having a self­centered perspective, feelings or superiority, and a drive for personal  power and glory Participative Management: the process of involving employees in setting goals, making  decisions, solving problems, and making changes in the organization Passive Leadership: a form of leadership behavior characterized by a lack of leadership skills Path­goal Leadership Model: holds that the effective leader makes available to followers  desirable rewards in the workplace and increases their motivation by clarifying the paths, or  behavior, that will help them achieve those goals and providing them with support Personalized Power: power directed at helping oneself Psychological Empowerment: employees’ belief that they have control over their work Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader Psychopathy: lack of concern for others, impulsive behavior, and a dearth or remorse when the  psychopath’s actions harm others Referent Power: power deriving from one’s personal attraction Relationship­oriented Leadership: primarily concerned with the leader’s interactions with his or  her people Reward Power: power that results from managers’ authority to reward their subordinates Servant Leadership: focuses on providing increased service to others – meeting the goals of  bother followers and the organization – rather than to oneself Situational Approach: contingency approach, approach to leadership, who believe that effective  leadership behavior depends on the situation at hand Socialized Power: power directed at helping others Task­oriented Leadership Behaviors: way to ensure that people, equipment, and other resources  are used in an efficient way to accomplish the missions of a group or organization Trait Approaches to Leadership: the attempt to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders Transactional Leadership: focusing on clarifying employees’ roles and task requirements and  providing rewards and punishments contingent on performance Transformational Leadership: transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self­ interests Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader 14.1 The Nature of Leadership: Wielding Influence Managers & Leaders: Not Always the Same  “leaders manage and managers lead, but the two activities are not synonymous”  Managers do planning, organizing, directing, and control  Leaders inspire, encourage, and rally others to achieve great goals Managerial Leadership: Can You Be Both a Manager & a Leader Coping with Complexity versus Coping with Change: The Thoughts of John Kotter  Management is about coping with complexity  Leadership is about coping with change Bring a Manager: Coping with Complexity   Determining what needs to be done – planning and budgeting  Creating arrangements of people to accomplish an agenda – organizing and  staffing  Ensuring people to do their jobs – controlling and problem solving Being a Leader: Coping with Change  Determining what needs to be done – setting a direction  Creating arrangements of people to accomplish an agenda – aligning people  Ensuring people to do their jobs – motivating and inspiring  Do You Have What It Takes to Be a Leader?  Managers have legitimate power that derives from the formal authority of the  positions to which they have been appointed Five Sources of Power 1. Legitimate power: influencing behavior because of one’s formal position 2. Reward power: influencing behavior by promising or giving rewards 3. Coercive power: influencing behavior by threatening or giving punishment 4. Expert power: influencing behavior because of one’s expertise Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader 5. Referent power: influencing behavior because of one’s personal attraction Leadership & Influence: Using Persuasion to Get Your Way at Work  How do you get your boss, coworker, or subordinate to do something you want? o Rational persuasion  Use logic, reason, or facts o Inspirational appeals  Appeal to others’ emotions, ideals, or values o Consultation  Getting others to participate in a decision or change o Ingratiating tactics  Acting humble o friendly, making someone feel good or important o Personal appeals  Referring to friendship or loyalty o Exchange tactics  Reminding someone of past favors o Coalition tactics   Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone o Pressure tactics  Using demands, threats, or intimidation to gain compliance o Legitimating tactics  Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors Five Approaches to Leadership 14.2 Trait Approaches: Do Leaders Have Distinctive Personality Characteristics? Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader Positive Task­Oriented Traits & Positive/Negative Interpersonal Attributes  Four positive task ­ oriented traits  o Intelligence o Conscientiousness o Openness to experience o Emotional stability “Dark Side” Traits: Narcissism, Machiavellianism & Psychopathy  Narcissism  Machiavellianism  Psychopathy  Is Trait Theory Useful?  Use personality and trait assessments  Choose personality over intelligence  Use management development programs Gender Studies: Do Women Have Traits that Make The Better Leaders? Evidence on Women Executives  Women were found to be better at teamwork and partnering, being more  collaborative, seeking less personal glory, being motivated less by self­ interest than in what they can do for the company, being more stable, and  being less turf conscious  Women have bene found to display more social leadership  Women executives, when rated by their peers, managers, and direct  reports, scored higher than their male counterparts on a variety of  effectiveness criteria Lack of Women at the Top  More women aren’t in positions of leadership because o Unwillingness to compete or sacrifice o Modesty o Lack of mentor o Starting out lower, and more likely to quit 14.3 Behavioral Approaches: Do Leaders Show Distinctive Patterns of Behavior?  Behavioral leadership approaches divided into four categories o Task­orientated behavior o Relationship­oriented behavior o Passive behavior o Transformational behavior Task Oriented Leader Behaviors: Initiating –Structure Leadership & Transactional  Leadership  Initiating­structure leadership: here’s what we do to get the job done Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader  Transactional leadership: here’s what we do to get the job done, & here  are the rewards Relationship­oriented Leader Behavior:  Three kinds of relationship­oriented behaviors o Consideration: the concerns & needs of my employees are highly  important o Empowering leadership: I want my employees to feel they have control  over their work  Leading for meaningfulness: inspiring and modeling desirable  behaviors  Leading for self­determination: delegating meaningful tasks  Leading for competence: supporting and coaching employees  Leading for progress: monitoring and rewarding employees o Servant leadership: I want to serve my subordinates & the organization,  not myself Passive Leadership: The Lack of Leadership Skills  Managers do not intervene until problems are brought to their attention or until  the problems become serious enough to demand action Some Practical Implications of the Behavioral Approaches Two key conclusions  1. A leader’s behavior is more important than his or her traits 2. There is no one best style of leadership 14.4 Situational Approaches: Should Leadership Vary with the Situation? Contingency Leadership Model: Fiedler’s Approach Two leadership orientations: tasks versus relationships The three dimensions of situational control Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader  Leader­member relations – do my subordinates accept me as a leader?  Task structure – do my subordinates perform unambiguous, easily  understood tasks?  Position power – do I have power to reward and punish? Which Style is Most Effective?  When task­oriented style is best o High­control o Low­control  When relationship­oriented style is best o Moderate control The Path­goal Leadership Model: House’s Approach What Determines Leadership Effectiveness: employee characteristics &  environmental factors affect leader behavior  Employee characteristics o Task ability o Need for achievement Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader o Experience  o Need for path – goal clarity  Environmental factors o Task structure o Work group dynamics  Leader behaviors Does the Revised Path­goal Theory Work?  Three important implications for managers o Use more than one leadership style o Help employees achieve their goals o Modify leadership style to fit employee and task characteristics  14.5 The Use of Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership  Transformational leaders are influenced by two factors: o Individual characteristics  Extroverted  Agreeable  Practical  Open to change o Organizational culture  Adaptive  Flexible  Rigid Four Key Behaviors of Transformational Leaders 1. Inspirational motivation: Let me share a vision that transcends us all 2. Idealized influence: we are here to do the right thing 3. Individualized consideration: you have the opportunity to grow and excel 4. Intellectual stimulation: let me describe the great challenges we can conquer  together Implications of Transformational leadership for Managers 1. It can improve results for both individuals & groups 2. It can be used to train employees at any level 3. It requires ethical leaders Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader 14.6 Three Additional Perspectives Leader­Member Exchange (LMX) Leadership: Having Different Relationships with  Different Subordinates In­Group Exchange versus Out­Group Exchange  In­group exchange: trust and respect  Out­group exchange: lack of trust and respect Is the LMX Model Useful?  The choice is made for reasons of compatibility and competence E­Leadership: Managing for Global Networks  The internet and other forms of advanced information technology have led to new  possible ways for interacting within and between organizations (e­business) and  with customers and suppliers (e­commerce) Followers: What Do They Want, How Can They Help? What Do Followers Want in Their Leaders?  Significance  Community  Excitement What Do Leaders Want in Their Followers?  Helpers  Showing deference to their leaders  Independents  rebels


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