Chapter 14 MGT 250
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Date Created: 04/22/16
Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader Vocabulary: Behavioral Leadership Approaches: attempt to determine the unique behaviors displayed by effective leaders Charisma: a form of interpersonal attraction that inspires acceptance and support Charismatic Leadership: assumed to be an individual inspirational and motivational characteristic of particular leaders Coercive Power: results from managers’ authority to punish their subordinates Consideration: leader behavior that is concerned with group members’ needs and desires and that is directed at creating mutual respect or trust Contingency Leadership Model: determines if a leader’s style is taskoriented or relationship oriented and if that style is effective for the situation at hand Eleadership: can involve onetoone, onetomany, withingroup and betweengroup and collective interactions via information technology Empowering Leadership: the extent to which a leader creates perceptions of psychological empowerment in others Expert Power: power resulting from one’s specialized information or expertise Fullrange Leadership: suggests that leadership behavior varies along a full range of leadership styles, from passive (Laissezfaire) “leadership” at one extreme, through transactional leadership, to transformational leadership at the other extreme Initiatingstructure Leadership: behavior that organizes and defines – that is, “initiates the structure for” – what employees should be doing to maximize output Laissefaire Leadership: a form of “leadership” characterized by a general failure to take responsibility for leading Leadermember Exchange Model of Leadership: emphasizes that leaders have different sorts of relationships with different subordinates Leadership: the ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals Legitimate Power: power that results from managers’ formal positions within the organization Machiavellianism: a cynical view of human nature and condones opportunistic and unethical ways of manipulating people, putting results over principles Managerial Leadership: the process of influence others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives Narcissism: having a selfcentered perspective, feelings or superiority, and a drive for personal power and glory Participative Management: the process of involving employees in setting goals, making decisions, solving problems, and making changes in the organization Passive Leadership: a form of leadership behavior characterized by a lack of leadership skills Pathgoal Leadership Model: holds that the effective leader makes available to followers desirable rewards in the workplace and increases their motivation by clarifying the paths, or behavior, that will help them achieve those goals and providing them with support Personalized Power: power directed at helping oneself Psychological Empowerment: employees’ belief that they have control over their work Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader Psychopathy: lack of concern for others, impulsive behavior, and a dearth or remorse when the psychopath’s actions harm others Referent Power: power deriving from one’s personal attraction Relationshiporiented Leadership: primarily concerned with the leader’s interactions with his or her people Reward Power: power that results from managers’ authority to reward their subordinates Servant Leadership: focuses on providing increased service to others – meeting the goals of bother followers and the organization – rather than to oneself Situational Approach: contingency approach, approach to leadership, who believe that effective leadership behavior depends on the situation at hand Socialized Power: power directed at helping others Taskoriented Leadership Behaviors: way to ensure that people, equipment, and other resources are used in an efficient way to accomplish the missions of a group or organization Trait Approaches to Leadership: the attempt to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders Transactional Leadership: focusing on clarifying employees’ roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishments contingent on performance Transformational Leadership: transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self interests Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader 14.1 The Nature of Leadership: Wielding Influence Managers & Leaders: Not Always the Same “leaders manage and managers lead, but the two activities are not synonymous” Managers do planning, organizing, directing, and control Leaders inspire, encourage, and rally others to achieve great goals Managerial Leadership: Can You Be Both a Manager & a Leader Coping with Complexity versus Coping with Change: The Thoughts of John Kotter Management is about coping with complexity Leadership is about coping with change Bring a Manager: Coping with Complexity Determining what needs to be done – planning and budgeting Creating arrangements of people to accomplish an agenda – organizing and staffing Ensuring people to do their jobs – controlling and problem solving Being a Leader: Coping with Change Determining what needs to be done – setting a direction Creating arrangements of people to accomplish an agenda – aligning people Ensuring people to do their jobs – motivating and inspiring Do You Have What It Takes to Be a Leader? Managers have legitimate power that derives from the formal authority of the positions to which they have been appointed Five Sources of Power 1. Legitimate power: influencing behavior because of one’s formal position 2. Reward power: influencing behavior by promising or giving rewards 3. Coercive power: influencing behavior by threatening or giving punishment 4. Expert power: influencing behavior because of one’s expertise Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader 5. Referent power: influencing behavior because of one’s personal attraction Leadership & Influence: Using Persuasion to Get Your Way at Work How do you get your boss, coworker, or subordinate to do something you want? o Rational persuasion Use logic, reason, or facts o Inspirational appeals Appeal to others’ emotions, ideals, or values o Consultation Getting others to participate in a decision or change o Ingratiating tactics Acting humble o friendly, making someone feel good or important o Personal appeals Referring to friendship or loyalty o Exchange tactics Reminding someone of past favors o Coalition tactics Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone o Pressure tactics Using demands, threats, or intimidation to gain compliance o Legitimating tactics Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors Five Approaches to Leadership 14.2 Trait Approaches: Do Leaders Have Distinctive Personality Characteristics? Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader Positive TaskOriented Traits & Positive/Negative Interpersonal Attributes Four positive task oriented traits o Intelligence o Conscientiousness o Openness to experience o Emotional stability “Dark Side” Traits: Narcissism, Machiavellianism & Psychopathy Narcissism Machiavellianism Psychopathy Is Trait Theory Useful? Use personality and trait assessments Choose personality over intelligence Use management development programs Gender Studies: Do Women Have Traits that Make The Better Leaders? Evidence on Women Executives Women were found to be better at teamwork and partnering, being more collaborative, seeking less personal glory, being motivated less by self interest than in what they can do for the company, being more stable, and being less turf conscious Women have bene found to display more social leadership Women executives, when rated by their peers, managers, and direct reports, scored higher than their male counterparts on a variety of effectiveness criteria Lack of Women at the Top More women aren’t in positions of leadership because o Unwillingness to compete or sacrifice o Modesty o Lack of mentor o Starting out lower, and more likely to quit 14.3 Behavioral Approaches: Do Leaders Show Distinctive Patterns of Behavior? Behavioral leadership approaches divided into four categories o Taskorientated behavior o Relationshiporiented behavior o Passive behavior o Transformational behavior Task Oriented Leader Behaviors: Initiating –Structure Leadership & Transactional Leadership Initiatingstructure leadership: here’s what we do to get the job done Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader Transactional leadership: here’s what we do to get the job done, & here are the rewards Relationshiporiented Leader Behavior: Three kinds of relationshiporiented behaviors o Consideration: the concerns & needs of my employees are highly important o Empowering leadership: I want my employees to feel they have control over their work Leading for meaningfulness: inspiring and modeling desirable behaviors Leading for selfdetermination: delegating meaningful tasks Leading for competence: supporting and coaching employees Leading for progress: monitoring and rewarding employees o Servant leadership: I want to serve my subordinates & the organization, not myself Passive Leadership: The Lack of Leadership Skills Managers do not intervene until problems are brought to their attention or until the problems become serious enough to demand action Some Practical Implications of the Behavioral Approaches Two key conclusions 1. A leader’s behavior is more important than his or her traits 2. There is no one best style of leadership 14.4 Situational Approaches: Should Leadership Vary with the Situation? Contingency Leadership Model: Fiedler’s Approach Two leadership orientations: tasks versus relationships The three dimensions of situational control Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader Leadermember relations – do my subordinates accept me as a leader? Task structure – do my subordinates perform unambiguous, easily understood tasks? Position power – do I have power to reward and punish? Which Style is Most Effective? When taskoriented style is best o Highcontrol o Lowcontrol When relationshiporiented style is best o Moderate control The Pathgoal Leadership Model: House’s Approach What Determines Leadership Effectiveness: employee characteristics & environmental factors affect leader behavior Employee characteristics o Task ability o Need for achievement Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader o Experience o Need for path – goal clarity Environmental factors o Task structure o Work group dynamics Leader behaviors Does the Revised Pathgoal Theory Work? Three important implications for managers o Use more than one leadership style o Help employees achieve their goals o Modify leadership style to fit employee and task characteristics 14.5 The Use of Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Transformational leaders are influenced by two factors: o Individual characteristics Extroverted Agreeable Practical Open to change o Organizational culture Adaptive Flexible Rigid Four Key Behaviors of Transformational Leaders 1. Inspirational motivation: Let me share a vision that transcends us all 2. Idealized influence: we are here to do the right thing 3. Individualized consideration: you have the opportunity to grow and excel 4. Intellectual stimulation: let me describe the great challenges we can conquer together Implications of Transformational leadership for Managers 1. It can improve results for both individuals & groups 2. It can be used to train employees at any level 3. It requires ethical leaders Chapter 14 : Power, Influence, & Leadership From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader 14.6 Three Additional Perspectives LeaderMember Exchange (LMX) Leadership: Having Different Relationships with Different Subordinates InGroup Exchange versus OutGroup Exchange Ingroup exchange: trust and respect Outgroup exchange: lack of trust and respect Is the LMX Model Useful? The choice is made for reasons of compatibility and competence ELeadership: Managing for Global Networks The internet and other forms of advanced information technology have led to new possible ways for interacting within and between organizations (ebusiness) and with customers and suppliers (ecommerce) Followers: What Do They Want, How Can They Help? What Do Followers Want in Their Leaders? Significance Community Excitement What Do Leaders Want in Their Followers? Helpers Showing deference to their leaders Independents rebels
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